Readings & Reflections: Monday of the Fifth Week in Ordinary Time & St. Agatha, February 5,2018

Readings & Reflections: Monday of the Fifth Week in Ordinary Time & St. Agatha, February 5,2018

Agatha’s feast has been celebrated on this day since ancient times. She was martyred in Catania, Sicily, most likely during the persecution of Decius in 251 A.D. While the details of her life are lost to history, the impact of her sacrifice is attested to by ancient authors. Agatha is the Latin form of agathos, meaning “good” in Greek. Of her, Saint Methodius of Sicily wrote: “She won a good name by her noble deeds, and by her name she points to the nobility of those deeds. Agatha, her name wins all people over to her company. She teaches them by her example to hasten with her to the true good, God alone.”

AMDG+

Opening Prayer

“Lord Jesus, let my heart sing for joy in your presence.  Give me eyes of faith to recognize your presence and fill me with your Holy Spirit that I may walk in your way of love and peace.” In your Name, I pray. Amen.

Reading 1
1 Kings 8:1-7, 9-13

The elders of Israel and all the leaders of the tribes,
the princes in the ancestral houses of the children of Israel,
came to King Solomon in Jerusalem,
to bring up the ark of the LORD’s covenant
from the City of David, which is Zion.
All the people of Israel assembled before King Solomon
during the festival in the month of Ethanim (the seventh month).
When all the elders of Israel had arrived,
the priests took up the ark;
they carried the ark of the LORD
and the meeting tent with all the sacred vessels
that were in the tent.
(The priests and Levites carried them.)King Solomon and the entire community of Israel
present for the occasion
sacrificed before the ark sheep and oxen
too many to number or count.
The priests brought the ark of the covenant of the LORD
to its place beneath the wings of the cherubim in the sanctuary,
the holy of holies of the temple.
The cherubim had their wings spread out over the place of the ark,
sheltering the ark and its poles from above.
There was nothing in the ark but the two stone tablets
which Moses had put there at Horeb,
when the LORD made a covenant with the children of Israel
at their departure from the land of Egypt.When the priests left the holy place,
the cloud filled the temple of the LORD
so that the priests could no longer minister because of the cloud,
since the LORD’s glory had filled the temple of the LORD.
Then Solomon said, “The LORD intends to dwell in the dark cloud;
I have truly built you a princely house,
a dwelling where you may abide forever.”

The word of the Lord.

Responsorial Psalm
Ps 132: 6-7, 8-10

R. (8a) Lord, go up to the place of your rest!
Behold, we heard of it in Ephrathah;
we found it in the fields of Jaar.
Let us enter into his dwelling,
let us worship at his footstool.
R. Lord, go up to the place of your rest!
Advance, O LORD, to your resting place,
you and the ark of your majesty.
May your priests be clothed with justice;
let your faithful ones shout merrily for joy.
For the sake of David your servant,
reject not the plea of your anointed.
R. Lord, go up to the place of your rest!

Gospel
Mark 6:53-56

After making the crossing to the other side of the sea, Jesus and his disciples came to land at Gennesaret and tied up there. As they were leaving the boat, people immediately recognized him. They scurried about the surrounding country and began to bring in the sick on mats to wherever they heard he was. Whatever villages or towns or countryside he entered, they laid the sick in the marketplaces and begged him that they might touch only the tassel on his cloak; and as many as touched it were healed.

The Gospel of the Lord.

Reflection 1 – Jesus healed their infirmities

“Whatever villages or towns or countryside he entered, they laid the sick in the marketplaces and begged him that they might touch only the tassel on his cloak; and as many as touched it were healed.”  {“All who touched him got well.”}

Reading the Holy Scripture brings into my heart the teachings of Jesus and
whatever He preached to the people of His time.  My intellect is put into good use and with the Spirit’s help I am able to receive the wisdom of His words. I believe in faith and follow Him.

Meditating on the way Jesus healed countless peoples and by the power He did them just brings into my mind and heart that Jesus could be nobody else but the Son of God Who has been anointed to do all things for the Father.

Today, countless peoples have that faith in their hearts about Jesus. The parents of disabled and mentally retarded children, the cancer patients, the emotionally disturbed, the oppressed and the poor who cannot seem to make life work for their favor, the bread winner who cannot seem to make ends met, are but quite a few of those who day after day bring their concerns to our God.

When I am confronted by people who obviously need the power of God in their lives, I at times could not bear to watch as my heart breaks for them. Often times, I ask myself and I ask God, why them Lord? Why can’t You do something for them, dear God

Although my heart prays and hopes with them, my imperfect faith
shakes me tells me to do other things within my own power. But amidst my unbelief, I see the faith of people and those close to them as they incessantly and patiently pray to God and lift their cares for healing and His blessings to be poured upon them.

This is the state of heart that has power…faith that can move mountains and make things happen in the Name of our Lord. In faith, they utter their prayers and hope that one day His blessings will be upon them and their relations. One may not see any physical change or improvement in their pitiful condition but one can just imagine how their faith in our God has worked miracles within their very own lives and how inner healing has transpired deep within their hearts and made them whole.

Today as we bring our lives to God and pray that His healing mercies may be upon all of us and upon our lands, let us always remember that we have a good and gracious God who heals the broken hearted. We have a God Who never fails us and Who is constant in His love for us. Whether we are gifted with total and complete physical healing within our own particular lives or not, let us continue to place our lives at His disposal and seek His mercies which are always new every moring. Let us pray that our faith may be perfected so that we may always recognize Him in both good and bad times.

We may never realize that God is around us and can be found in the most ordinary and simplest circumstances of life. We may fail to see Him in those situations especially if what is on hand do not necessarily come up to what we want or what we were hoping life would be. Even if we come face to face with Him, we do not see him. Not because we do not want to see Him, be touched and changed by Him but because we are weary and distracted. Because we are spiritually blinded by our worldliness and our sinfulness that we simply go wandering in our search not knowing that we have missed God and His grace.

As we journey back to our true home with the Father, let us keep in our hearts that we have a God Who is beyond what our human hearts and minds can comprehend.  He is a God Who is so good and Who gives life and is hidden in the surface of the most ordinary things. He constantly builds new bridges to connect us with Himself and His people.

Today, let us not go far in our search for God and His healing grace.  Instead let us look deep into our hearts as He has been there waiting for us. We have to open our inner gates in order for us to realize and recognize that He has been patiently waiting for us, has been faithfully filling us with His strength and His blessings, and has brought us out of our enslavement to sin. God has warmed us with his love and Who in time will perfect us and accordingly transform us back to His likeness and goodness.

In the silence of our hearts God is right now speaking to us ever so quietly. Let us listen to Him. But we will only be able to recognize Him only if we open our hearts to Him.
Direction

In faith, let us surrender everything to our God. From our most difficult life situation to the most minor concern, lay them at the foot of the Cross of Jesus and let Him address them according to His will. Faith in itself will create miracles within us.

Prayer

Lord, give me the faith to believe in Your power. Make my faith firm and fixed as the earth is upon its foundation, not to be moved forever. In Jesus I pray that my faith be perfected. Amen.

Reflection 2 – Many were made well

Do you recognize the Lord’s presence in your life? The Gospel records that when Jesus disembarked from the boat the people immediately recognized him. What did they recognize in Jesus? A prophet, a healer, the Messiah, the Son of God? For sure they recognized that Jesus had power from God to heal and to make whole bodies, limbs, minds, and hearts that were beset with disease, affliction, and sin. What happened when they pressed upon him and touched the fringe of his garment? They were made well. The Lord Jesus is ever ready to meet our needs as well. Do you approach him with expectant faith?

Do you recognize the Lord’s presence with you and the power of his word for your life?
Faith is an entirely free gift which God makes to us through the power of the Holy Spirit. Believing and trusting in God to act in our lives is only possible by the grace and help of the Holy Spirit who moves the heart and converts it to God. The Holy Spirit opens the eyes of the mind and helps us to understand, accept, and believe God’s word. How do we grow in faith? By listening to God’s word with trust and submission. Faith also grows through testing and perseverance. The Lord wants to teach us how to pray in faith for his will for our lives and for the things he wishes to give us to enable us to follow him faithfully and serve him generously.

Do you seek the Lord Jesus and put his kingdom first?
Jesus gave his disciples the perfect prayer which acknowledges God as our Father who provides generously for his children. The Lord’s prayer teaches us to seek first the kingdom of God and to pray that God’s will be accomplished in our lives. The Lord in turn, gives us what we need to live each day for his glory. The Lord is never too distant nor too busy to meet us and to give his blessing. Do you pray to the Father with confidence that he will show you his will and give you what you need to follow him? Ask the Lord to increase your faith and gratitude for his merciful love and provision for your life.

“Lord Jesus, let my heart sing for joy in your presence. Give me eyes of faith to recognize your presence and fill me with your Holy Spirit that I may walk in your way of love and peace.” – Read the source: http://dailyscripture.servantsoftheword.org/readings/2018/feb5.htm

Reflection 3 – The source of life

Tradition has it that in the late 1500s and early 1600s, the Spanish explorer Ponce de Leon was seeking the Fountain of Youth and discovered Florida instead. The Fountain of Youth has captured the imagination of many for centuries. A source of water that keeps people from growing old would be a valuable possession for anyone. And although Florida has turned out to be a refuge for many who seek to live out their golden years in warmth and peace, it does not provide the eternal youth sought by early explorers.

Christians may not have located that Fountain of Youth, but we have something even better; the Source of all Life. Today’s first reading describes all life springing from God, the Creator who was before all things came into being. Nothing exists except from the hand of God, and God, in mercy, saw that everything created was good.

Followers of Jesus found that the same source of life flowed through him. They flocked to Jesus for healing; wherever he went, people followed him and brought their sick to be cured. The Gospel depicts people simply touching his cloak and having their health restored, so great was the power of that source of life and the mercy which allowed the people to partake of it.

Today’s readings remind us that God is the source of life for us as well. When we are in need of healing, when we are in pain or feel lifeless, we, too, can find new life in God, through Christ. We cannot touch the cloak of Jesus, but as participants in his church, his Body, we are constantly nourished by the life that flows through him. For our part, we must allow that life to continue to flow, feeding and healing all those we meet. (Source: Cecilia A. Felix, Weekday Homily Helps. Ohio: St. Anthony Messenger Press, February 9, 2009).

Reflection 4 – Why did Jesus heal the sick?

Here’s a story. Once upon a time there lived a mean old woman. Throughout her whole life she had never done a single good deed. When she died the devil came, picked her up and threw her into the fiery sea. Her guardian angel stood by in sadness. As his last resort he went to God saying, “I will be never happy again in all eternity because I lost the woman you entrusted to me. Is there other way that could still be done to save her?” The Lord replied, “If you find a single deed – no matter how insignificant – that woman has done during her life, I will save her.” The guardian angel searched all the books of her life and all he could find was that a long time ago she had pulled a green onion out of her vegetable patch and had thrown it at a poor beggar woman just to get rid of her. The angel returned to God and told him what he had found. God replied, “Though it is no much, take that very same onion and hold it out to her in the fiery sea so that she can grasp it and you may pull her out.”

The angel went on his way and held out the onion to her crying, “Come, catch hold and I will pull you out.” The woman followed the angel’s instruction and the angel began pulling her out of the fire. Just as she was being lifted above the flames, the other inhabitants of hell, seeing her escape, began grabbing hold of her so that they too would be released. When the old woman realized what was happening and in keeping with her wicked ways, she started kicking them and shouted, “I am to be pulled out, not you! It’s my onion, not yours!” The moment she said this, the onion split in two and the old woman fell back into the fiery sea. The angel went away and wept.

God’s plan for the world is perceived not in terms of total destruction but in terms of transformation aiming at the salvation of all. This is the purpose of Jesus’ healing of the sick and that all be in heaven.

The new heaven and new earth are understood as being this world transformed, renewed, cleansed and made new. It is this old, sin-permeated, corrupt world, a world in which there is so much hatred, egoism, oppression, despair and suffering, that will be the object of transformation. It will become something totally new. Our world is the arena where God’s ultimate plan for creation unfolds.

Being saved does not mean being taken out of this world and transferred to another place. Being saved means remaining part of the whole creation that has been transformed into the new Heaven and the new Earth. I will be saved because creation as a whole will be saved. My salvation is imbedded in the salvation of all human beings. As St. Paul said, “God wants all people to be saved” (1 Tim 2:4).

Reflection 5 – You are a tassel on the cloak of Jesus

Our goal as Christians should be to unite ourselves so closely to Christ that people who touch our lives are healed by him, because we are cloaked with his holiness. We wear his garment of love.

I’m not talking about giving others a touch of Jesus. No, this is about being touched by others. Today’s Gospel reading says that all who touched Jesus were healed.

Are there people where you live or work or worship who are trying to touch the Jesus in you? Are you letting them? Or is there something in you that blocks their approach? Do you seem closed off in your own world of concerns? Are they afraid that you’ll get annoyed? Do you intimidate them or make them feel inferior? Are you distracted by your own agenda? Do you tend to push people away because you’re afraid of getting hurt?

(Sometimes we have to set boundaries against being touched in the wrong way. If another’s touch on your life is destructive, that person is not going to get well through you no matter how much Jesus shines in you. God is going to make himself available through someone else, not you.)

When people encounter us they should also encounter Jesus and his love, his smile, his joy, his peace, his healing, and all the good news of the Gospel truth. If we are truly Christian, when people touch our lives, they touch the tassel of the cloak that Jesus wears.

You never know how it’s going to happen. Be ready! One day in the church parking lot, as my husband and I got out of the car, a stranger ran over to us and said, “Give me a hug!” So we did. We both gave her a big, warm embrace and I said, “Jesus loves you.” She replied, “I know! I was in an accident on the way home from church last Sunday. A truck plowed into me. It could have been terrible, but I’m fine!”

Then she added, “I was in your class when you gave that Bible Conference a few years ago.” Apparently, we had touched her back then with the love of Jesus, and now in appreciation for the protection God had given her, she wanted to touch the presence of Jesus in us again. Praise God we hadn’t rushed into church when she came at us!

You are a tassel on the cloak of Jesus, too. Don’t be afraid of the hands that come at you. Be in awe; praise God. People who see that you love Jesus instinctively realize that when they touch you, they touch him — even those who seemingly want nothing to do with Christ and his Church. – Read the source: http://gnm.org/good-news-reflections/?useDrDate=2018-02-05

Please follow Romeo Hontiveros at Twitter click this link: https://twitter.com/Trumpeta

Reflection 6 – St. Agatha (d. 251? A.D.)

As in the case of Agnes, another virgin-martyr of the early Church, almost nothing is historically certain about this saint except that she was martyred in Sicily during the persecution of Emperor Decius in 251.

Legend has it that Agatha, like Agnes, was arrested as a Christian, tortured and sent to a house of prostitution to be mistreated. She was preserved from being violated, and was later put to death.

She is claimed as the patroness of both Palermo and Catania. The year after her death, the stilling of an eruption of Mt. Etna was attributed to her intercession. As a result, apparently, people continued to ask her prayers for protection against fire.

Comment:

The scientific modern mind winces at the thought of a volcano’s might being contained by God because of the prayers of a Sicilian girl. Still less welcome, probably, is the notion of that saint being the patroness of such varied professions as those of foundry workers, nurses, miners and Alpine guides. Yet, in our historical precision, have we lost an essential human quality of wonder and poetry, and even our belief that we come to God by helping each other, both in action and prayer?

Quote:

When Agatha was arrested, the legend says, she prayed: “Jesus Christ, Lord of all things! You see my heart, you know my desires. Possess all that I am—you alone. I am your sheep; make me worthy to overcome the devil.” And in prison: “Lord, my creator, you have protected me since I was in the cradle. You have taken me from the love of the world and given me patience to suffer. Now receive my spirit.”

Patron Saint of: Breast disease, against
Foundry workers, Nurses

Read the source:   http://www.americancatholic.org/features/saints/saint.aspx?id=1282

SAINT OF THE DAY
Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives. Each saint the Church honors responded to God’s invitation to use his or her unique gifts. God calls each one of us to be a saint. Click here to receive Saint of the Day in your email.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agatha_of_Sicily
“St Agatha” redirects here. For communities named after St Agatha, see Sainte-Agathe (disambiguation). For churches, see St Agatha’s Church.
SAINT AGATHA OF SICILY
Sebastiano del Piombo 001.jpg

Saint Agatha tortured
VIRGIN AND MARTYR
BORN c. 231[1]
Catania or PalermoSicily
DIED c. 251
Catania, Sicily
VENERATED IN Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Churches
Oriental Orthodoxy
CANONIZED Pre-congregation by tradition confirmed by Gregory I
FEAST February 5
ATTRIBUTES shears, tongs, breasts on a plate[2]
PATRONAGE Sicilybellfoundersbreast cancerbakersCatania, Sicily; against fire;[3] earthquakes; eruptions of Mount Etnafire;jewelersmartyrsnatural disastersnursesPalermo, Sicily; rape victims; San Marino; single laywomen; sterility; torture victims; volcanic eruptionsnurseswet nurses; Zamarramala, Spain
CONTROVERSY Rejection to worship Roman Emperors, forced prostitution, rape and conflict to maintain virginity

Saint Agatha of Sicily (231 AD – 251 AD) is a Christian saint and virgin martyress. Her memorial is on 5 February. Agatha[4] was born at Catania or PalermoSicily, and she was martyred in approximately 251. She is one of seven women, who, along with the Blessed Virgin Mary, are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass.[5]

She is the patron saint of Catania, MoliseMaltaSan Marino and Zamarramala, a municipality of the Province of Segovia in Spain. She is also the patron saint of breast cancer patients, martyrs, wet nurses, bell-founders, bakers, fire, earthquakes, and eruptions of Mount Etna.

Early history[edit]

Agatha is buried at the Badia di Sant’Agata, Catania.[6] She is listed in the late 6th-century Martyrologium Hieronymianum associated with Jerome,[7] and the Synaxarion, the calendar of the church of Carthage, ca. 530.[8]Agatha also appears in one of the carmina of Venantius Fortunatus.[9]

Two early churches were dedicated to her in Rome,[10] notably the Church of Sant’Agata dei Goti in Via Mazzarino, atitular church with apse mosaics of ca. 460 and traces of a fresco cycle,[11] overpainted by Gismondo Cerrini in 1630. In the 6th century AD, the church was adapted to Arianism, hence its name “Saint Agatha of Goths“, and later reconsecrated by Gregory the Great, who confirmed her traditional sainthood.

Agatha is also depicted in the mosaics of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, where she appears, richly dressed, in theprocession of female martyrs along the north wall. Her image forms an initial I in the Sacramentary of Gellone, which dates from the end of the 8th century.

Life[edit]

One of the most highly venerated virgin martyrs of Christian antiquity, Agatha was put to death during the persecution of Decius(250–253) in Catania, Sicily, for her steadfast profession of faith.[7]

Her written legend[12] comprises “straightforward accounts of interrogation, torture, resistance, and triumph which constitute some of the earliest hagiographic literature“,[13] and are reflected in later recensions, the earliest surviving one being an illustrated late 10th-century passio bound into a composite volume[14] in theBibliothèque nationale de France, originating probably in Autun, Burgundy; in its margin illustrations Magdalena Carrasco detected Carolingian or Late Antiqueiconographic traditions.[15]

Although the martyrdom of Saint Agatha is authenticated, and her veneration as a saint had spread beyond her native place even in antiquity, there is no reliable information concerning the details of her death.[7]

According to Jacobus de VoragineLegenda Aurea of ca. 1288,[16]having dedicated her virginity to God,[17] fifteen-year-old Agatha, from a rich and noble family, rejected the amorous advances of the low-born Roman prefect Quintianus, who then persecuted her for her Christian faith.[18] He sent Agatha to Aphrodisia, the keeper of a brothel.

Saint Peter Healing Agatha, by theCaravaggio-follower Giovanni Lanfranco, ca 1614

The madam finding her intractable, Quintianus sends for her, argues, threatens, and finally has her put in prison. Amongst the tortures she underwent was the cutting off of her breasts with pincers. After further dramatic confrontations with Quintianus, represented in a sequence of dialogues in her passio that document her fortitude and steadfast devotion. Saint Agatha was then sentenced to be burnt at the stake, but an earthquake saved her from that fate; instead, she was sent to prison where St. Peter the Apostle appeared to her and healed her wounds.[19] Saint Agatha died in prison, according to theLegenda Aurea in “the year of our Lord two hundred and fifty-three in the time of Decius, the emperor of Rome.”

Osbern BokenhamA Legend of Holy Women, written in the 1440s, offers some further detail.[20]

Veneration[edit]

Festival of Saint Agatha in Catania (1915)

Catania’s duomo

Catania Cathedral (Cattedrale di Sant’Agata) is dedicated to Saint Agatha.

According to Maltese tradition, during the persecution of Roman Emperor Decius (AD 249–251), Agatha, together with some of her friends, fled from Sicily, and took refuge in Malta. Some historians believe that her stay on the island was rather short, and she spent her days in a rock hewn crypt at Rabat, praying and teaching the Christian Faith to children. After some time, Agatha returned to Sicily, where she faced martyrdom. Agatha was arrested and brought before Quintanus, praetor of Catania, who condemned her to torture and imprisonment. The crypt of St. Agatha is an underground basilica, which from early ages was venerated by the Maltese. At the time of St. Agatha’s stay, the crypt was a small natural cave which later on, during the 4th or 5th century, was enlarged and embellished.[21]

Patronage[edit]

Saint Agatha’s breasts sculpted in the fortification walls, Mons, Var

She is the patron saint of Catania, Sorihuela del Guadalimar (Spain), MoliseSan MarinoMalta and Kalsa, a historical quarter of Palermo.

Saint Agatha is a patron saint of Malta, where in 1551 her intercession through a reported apparition to a Benedictine nun is said to have saved Malta from Turkish invasion.[21]

Agatha is the patron saint of bell-founders because of the shape of her severed breasts,[18] and also of bakers, whose loaves were blessed at her feast day. More recently, she has been venerated as patron saint of breast cancer patients.

She is claimed as the patroness of Palermo. The year after her death, the stilling of an eruption of Mt. Etna was attributed to her intercession. As a result, apparently, people continued to ask her prayers for protection against fire.[22]

Iconography[edit]

Saint Agatha is often depicted iconographically carrying her excised breasts on a platter, as by Bernardino Luini‘s Saint Agatha (1510–15) in the Galleria Borghese, Rome, in which Agatha contemplates the breasts on a standing salver held in her hand.

Legacy[edit]

Burial of St Agatha, by Giulio Campi, 1537

Basques have a tradition of gathering on Saint Agatha’s Eve (BasqueSanta Ageda bezpera) and going round the village. Homeowners can choose to hear a song about her life, accompanied by the beats of their walking sticks on the floor or a prayer for the household’s deceased. After that, the homeowner donates food to the chorus.[23]This song has varying lyrics according to the local tradition and the Basque language. An exceptional case was that of 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, when a version appeared that in the Spanish language praised the Soviet ship Komsomol, which had sunk while carrying Soviet weapons to the Second Spanish Republic.

An annual festival to commemorate the life of Saint Agatha takes place in CataniaSicily, from February 3 to 5. The festival culminates in a great all-night procession through the city for which hundreds of thousands of the city’s residents turn out.[24]

St. Agatha’s Tower is a former Knight’s stronghold located in the north west of Malta. The seventeenth-century tower served as a military base during both World Wars and was used as a radar station by the Maltese army.[21]

Agatha in art[edit]

Agatha is a featured figure on Judy Chicago‘s installation piece The Dinner Party, being represented as one of the 999 names on the Heritage Floor.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up^ D’Arrigo, Santo. Il Martirio di Santa Agata (Catania) 1985
  2. Jump up^ Delaney, John P. (1980). Dictionary of Saints (Second ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7.
  3. Jump up^ Catholic Culture
  4. Jump up^ Latinized form of Greek Αγαθη (Agathe), derived from Greek αγαθος, agathos, “good” (Behind the Name: the etymology and history of first names); Jacobus de Voragine, taking etymology in the Classical tradition, as a text for a creative excursus, made of Agatha one symbolic origin in agios, “sacred” + Theos, “God”, and another in a-geos”, “without Earth”, virginally untainted by earthly desires (“Agatha”, III.15).
  5. Jump up^ Attwater, Donald; John, Catherine Rachel (1993). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (3rd ed.). New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051312-4.
  6. Jump up^ D’Arrigo 1985, p. 15; the present rebuilding of the ancient foundation is by Giovanni Battista Vaccarini (1767).
  7. Jump up to:a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter. “St. Agatha.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 25 Apr. 2013
  8. Jump up^ W.H. Frere, Studies in Roman Liturgy: 1. The Kalendar(London, 1930), p 94f.
  9. Jump up^ Carmen VIII, 4, De Virginitate, noted by Liana De Girolami Cheney, “The Cult of Saint Agatha” Woman’s Art Journal 17.1 (Spring – Summer 1996:3–9) p. 3.
  10. Jump up^ Sant’Agata in via della Lugaretta, Trastevere, and Sant’Agata dei Goti, (Touring Club Italiano, Roma e dintorni [Milan, 1965], pp 444, 315).
  11. Jump up^ (date in TCI, Roma e dintorni; a letter from Pope Hadrian I (died 795) to Charlemagne remarks that Gregory (died 604) ordered the church adorned with mosaics and frescoes (Cheney 1996 note 5).
  12. Jump up^ Acta Sanctorum IV, February vol. I (new ed. Paris, 1863) pp 599–662
  13. Jump up^ Magdalena Elizabeth Carrasco, “The early illustrated manuscript of the Passion of Saint Agatha (Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS lat. 5594)”, Gesta 24 (1985), p. 20.
  14. Jump up^ The volume comprising texts of various places and dates was probably compiled when it was in the collection of Jean-Baptiste Colbert from which it entered the French royal collection.
  15. Jump up^ Carrasco 1985, pp 19–32.
  16. Jump up^ “Agatha”, III.15.
  17. Jump up^ TertullianDe virginibus velandis (“On the veiling of virgins”) makes the distinction between virgins of men and virgins of God, consecrated to Christ.
  18. Jump up to:a b Fabio, Michelle. “Feast of Saint Agatha in Catania, Sicily”, Italy magazine, 2 February 2009
  19. Jump up^ Stracke, J.R., “Saint Agatha of Sicily”, Georgia Regents University, Augusta Georgia
  20. Jump up^ Osbern Bokenham, (Sheila Delany, tr.) A Legend of Holy Women (University of Notre Dame) 1992, pp 157–67.
  21. Jump up to:a b c “St. Agatha”, St. Agatha’s Crypt, Catacombs & Museum
  22. Jump up^ Foley O.F.M., Leonard. Saint of the Day, (revised by Pat McCloskey O.F.M.), Franciscan Media, ISBN 978-0-86716-887-7
  23. Jump up^ J. Etxegoien, Orhipean, Gure Herria ezagutzen (Xamar) 1996 [in Basque].
  24. Jump up^ “Feast of Saint Agatha in Catania, Sicily”, Italy magazine, February 2, 2009
  25. Jump up^