Readings & Reflections with Cardinal Tagle’s Video: Second Sunday in Ordinary Time B & St. Gregory Nazianzen, January 14,2018

Readings & Reflections with Cardinal Tagle’s Video: Second Sunday in Ordinary Time B & St. Gregory Nazianzen, January 14,2018

“I have waited, waited for the Lord.” In our yearning, John the Baptist sends us to the Lamb of God. Jesus look at us and addresses us with a breathtaking questions, “What are you looking for?” Christ’s first words call us to search our desires. For Jesus draws us to himself through the longings of our heart. The Lord once said to Saint Catherine of Siena, “I who am infinite God want you to serve me with what is infinite, and you have nothing infinite except your soul’s love and desire.” “You are not your own”; God’s law/desire has been placed within our heart. To do his will is our delight. The Son of God says to us now what Samuel once said to Eli: “Here I am.”


Opening Prayer

“Lord Jesus Christ, fill me with the power of your Holy Spirit and let me grow in the knowledge of your love and truth. Let your Spirit be aflame in my heart that I may know and love you more fervently and strive to do your will in all things.”  In your Name, I pray. Amen.

Reading I
1 Samuel 3:3b-10, 19 – Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.

Samuel was sleeping in the temple of the LORD where the ark of God was. The LORD called to Samuel, who answered, “Here I am.” Samuel ran to Eli and said, “Here I am. You called me.” “I did not call you,” Eli said. “Go back to sleep.” So he went back to sleep. Again the LORD called Samuel, who rose and went to Eli. “Here I am,” he said. “You called me.” But Eli answered, “I did not call you, my son. Go back to sleep.”

At that time Samuel was not familiar with the LORD, because the LORD had not revealed anything to him as yet. The LORD called Samuel again, for the third time. Getting up and going to Eli, he said, “Here I am. You called me.”  Then Eli understood that the LORD was calling the youth.
So he said to Samuel, “Go to sleep, and if you are called, reply, Speak, LORD, for your servant is listening.” When Samuel went to sleep in his place, the LORD came and revealed his presence, calling out as before, “Samuel, Samuel!” Samuel answered, “Speak, for your servant is listening.”

Samuel grew up, and the LORD was with him, not permitting any word of his to be without effect.

The word of the Lord.

Responsorial Psalm
Psalm 40:2, 4, 7-8, 8-9, 10

R. (8a and 9a) Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will.

I have waited, waited for the LORD, and he stooped toward me and heard my cry. And he put a new song into my mouth, a hymn to our God.
R. Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will.

Sacrifice or offering you wished not, but ears open to obedience you gave me. Holocausts or sin-offerings you sought not; then said I, “Behold I come.”
R. Here I am, Lord; I come to do your will.

“In the written scroll it is prescribed for me, to do your will, O my God, is my delight, and your law is within my heart!”
R. Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will.

I announced your justice in the vast assembly; I did not restrain my lips, as you, O LORD, know.
R. Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will.

Reading II
1 Corinthians 6:13c-15a, 17-20 – Your bodies are members of Christ.

Brothers and sisters:
The body is not for immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body; God raised the Lord and will also raise us by his power. Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? But whoever is joined to the Lord becomes one Spirit with him. Avoid immorality. Every other sin a person commits is outside the body, but the immoral person sins against his own body. Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you have been purchased at a price.  Therefore glorify God in your body.

The word of the Lord.

Alleluia Jn 1:41, 17b

R. Alleluia, alleluia.
We have found the Messiah:
Jesus Christ, who brings us truth and grace.
R. Alleluia, alleluia.

John 1:35-42 – They saw where he was staying and they stayed with him.

Fr. Robert Barron’s Homily – The Call of Samuel click below:

John was standing with two of his disciples, and as he watched Jesus walk by, he said, “Behold, the Lamb of God.” The two disciples heard what he said and followed Jesus. Jesus turned and saw them following him and said to them,  “What are you looking for?” They said to him, “Rabbi” — which translated means Teacher,–“where are you staying?” He said to them, “Come, and you will see.” So they went and saw where Jesus was staying, and they stayed with him that day. It was about four in the afternoon. Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two who heard John and followed Jesus. He first found his own brother Simon and told him, “We have found the Messiah” –which is translated Christ –.
Then he brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon the son of John; you will be called Cephas”–which is translated Peter.

The Gospel of the Lord.

Reflection 1 – Hearing the call

Dr. Scott Hahn’s Reflection click below:

Download Audio File

In the call of Samuel and the first Apostles, today’s Readings shed light on our own calling to be followers of Christ.

Notice in the Gospel today that John’s disciples are prepared to hear God’s call. They are already looking for the Messiah, so they trust in John’s word and follow when he points out the Lamb of God walking by.

Samuel is also waiting on the Lord – sleeping near the Ark of the Covenant where God’s glory dwells, taking instruction from Eli, the high priest.

Samuel listened to God’s word and the Lord was with him. And Samuel, through his word, turned all Israel to the Lord (see 1 Samuel 3:21; 7:2-3). The disciples too, heard and followed – words we hear repeatedly in today’s Gospel. They stayed with the Lord and by their testimony brought others to the Lord.

These scenes from salvation history should give us strength to embrace God’s will and to follow His call in our lives.

God is constantly calling to each of us – personally, by name (see Isaiah 43:1; John 10:3). He wants us to seek Him in love, to long for His word (see Wisdom 6:11-12). We must desire always, as the apostles did, to stay where the Lord stays, to constantly seek His face (see Psalm 42:2).

For we are not our own, but belong to the Lord, as Paul says in today’s Epistle.

We must have ears open to obedience, and write His word within our hearts. We must trust in the Lord’s promise – that if we come to Him in faith, He will abide with us (see John 15:14; 14:21-23), and raise us by His power. And we must reflect in our lives the love He has shown us, so that others too may find the Messiah.

As we renew our vows of discipleship in this Eucharist, let us approach the altar singing the new song of today’s Psalm: “Behold I come . . . to do your will O God.” – Read the source:


Reflection 2 – How would you answer Jesus:  What are you looking for?

How would you answer if Jesus were to ask you, “What are you looking for?” (Jn 1:38). Would you answer Him for better job, for good health, for a happier marriage, and/or for salvation?

One day while the two disciples with John the Baptist, Jesus walked by and John announced, “Behold the lamb of God!” (Jn 1:36).  Instead of continuing to follow him, his two disciples started to follow Jesus. John taught them well because they were not seeking something for themselves but Jesus Himself. They wanted to know where Jesus was staying and Jesus show them the place and spent the day with them. Then Andrew was not content to keep Jesus to himself. He felt compelled to invite his brother Simon to share the good news with him saying, “We have found the Messiah” (Jn 1:42) and took him to Jesus.  Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon the son of John; you will be called Cephas” (which is translated Peter). Like John the Baptist, do I humble myself before Jesus, the Lamb of God? Like Andrew, do I proclaim Jesus, the Messiah and invite my brother, sister or my whole family to stay with Jesus in His Church? Do I let Jesus change my life according to His will just like what He did to Simon by changing his name to Cephas (Peter, the rock foundation of His Church)?

Many years ago, some prospectors were panning for gold in Montana when one of them found an unusual stone. Breaking it open, he saw that it contained gold. Working eagerly, the men soon discovered an abundance of the precious metal. With unrestrained delight they shouted, “We’ve found it! We’ve found gold! We’re rich!” Before going into town for supplies, they agreed not to tell a soul about their find. While in town, not one of them breathed a word about their discovery. When they were about to return to camp, though, a group of men had gathered and were ready to follow them. “You’ve found gold,” the group said. “Who told you?” asked the prospectors. “No one,” they replied. “Your faces showed it!” It’s much like that when a person discovers Christ. Those miners wanted to keep quiet about their find but we as Christians should be eager to let people know about ours. Finding Christ is life’s greatest discovery, and our joy increases when we share it with others. As believers, our highest delight is both in finding and in telling. The goodness of Christ has to be shared to others (cf. Our Daily Bread, Good News Ministries).

Every Sunday in the Church we hear Jesus through the Scriptures speaking to us and proclaim the Kingdom of God. Jesus dines with us, sharing with us the spiritual supper of his body and blood at the Holy Eucharist. Am I eager to go out and find someone to share this good news to my family member or friend who no longer comes to Mass? Do I volunteer to do whatever I can to be of help of my Parish Church? For more reflection watch the video on Biblical evidence for the Real Presence of Jesus in the Eucharist click this link:

Reflection 3 – What are you looking for? What do you want?

Some of us may have encountered sickness, afflictions, relationship problems, financial difficulties and life-reversals making life difficult. Such life experiences softened our hearts and may have led us to heed God and His call. They have made us open our hearts to Him, seek His grace and blessings.  But there are also those whose hearts were hardened by heart breaking situations and found it quite difficult to listen to God, much more respond to His messages.

Just as difficulties and hardships can either soften or harden our hearts, a life of ease, comfort and material abundance can make us responsive to God or be cold to Him. There are some of us who may be doing fairly well in life that it takes us a while before we can respond with real insight to the simple question that Jesus asked those two prospective disciples in today’s gospel: “What are you looking for? What do you want?”  Just as the two young men fumbled for an answer and finally replied with another question, “Where do you live?” we too can respond in a similar way. But we can also be like Andrew, who upon realizing he found the Messiah, went out of his way to bring his brother Simon to Jesus.

There might be something missing in our lives and we just can’t seem to put a handle on it. Today, Jesus is inviting us to come and see what it is to live our lives for Him. Are we going to react to His invitation? Or are we going to be cold and indifferent? When Jesus said to two of John’s disciples, ‘Come and see,’ they went and they were not disappointed. It was not just the teachings of Jesus­ and His ideas that captured their imaginations and their hearts. It was His total being – the way that He always was towards them, that made them stay with Him. Even his mere silence brought them peace and revealed the goodness in Him. The love and compassion that Jesus shared with them moved them deeply and made them bond their souls to his forever. They could tell that Jesus knew the Father and that He wanted them to know the Father as well.

The first people to respond to Jesus and His call allowed themselves to be disciple by Him. They walked with Him for three years and slowly they were transformed and became the foundation of God’s church. Through Jesus they came to know the Father, and through Jesus they came to be more and more like the Father – merciful, compassionate, forgiving, and faithful to the end.

We, too, can be like the initial followers of Jesus if only we will open our hearts to Him. Jesus is the perfect answer to every facet of life, yesterday, today and tomorrow. Jesus wants to show us the Father and more. He wants to help us re-shape our lives in the Father’s own image.

Jesus is once more trying to ask us, “What are you looking for?” To be transformed and be a disciple of Jesus is a lifetime task, and it’s the very thing we’ve been looking for all along. “Come, and you will see.”

“Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit within you, which you have from God, and that you are not your own?  For you have been purchased at a price. Therefore glorify God in your body. We are God’s children now and what we shall later be has not yet come to light. But when it comes to light we shall be like Him for we shall see Him as He is.” Alleluia!


Examine our lives and ask God how we can be transformed and become truly temples of His Spirit.


Heavenly Father, give me the grace not only to open my heart to you in whatever situation I may be. Let me always positively respond to your Word no matter how difficult it may be. In Jesus, I pray. Amen.

Reflection 4 – What Are You Looking For?

A man was looking for the perfect wife. He wanted to find someone who was beautiful, kind, loving, and very religious. He found such a woman. But it did not work out. He said she was so religious that she could not easily relate to the practical things in life.

So he looked for someone else. He found one who was beautiful, kind, loving, intelligent, organized and practical in material affairs. He thought she was the perfect wife. But again it did not work out. She was so practical that she really did not need a man in her life, and she ended up being domineering. So he continued searching.

Then he found another woman. She was beautiful, kind, loving, intelligent, practical in material affairs, as well as very religious. At last, he thought, here is the perfect wife – a perfect balance of the practical and spiritual. But again, it did not work out – because she was also looking for the perfect husband!

John the Baptist told his two disciples about Jesus: “Behold, the Lamb of God!” At once they began following Jesus. And when Jesus saw them, he asked them: “What are you looking for?” At first, it may look like a simple question. But actually, it is profound and challenging. It invites one to look deeply into himself and evaluate the direction and the meaning of his life. Obviously, the two disciples did not get the full implication of the question because they replied with another question: “Rabbi, where are you staying?”

In Jewish society, rabbis are itinerant teachers. They teach, not formally and in classrooms, but as he moves around, talking about important lessons from concrete realities in life. His students follow him wherever he goes and they imbibe his philosophy and way of life in the process. To ask where a rabbi lives is rather pointless.

Noticing, therefore, their inability to grasp his challenge, he said, “Come and you will see.” It was an invitation to follow him, and to be part of his life. “And they stayed with him that day.” That one day of experience inspired them so much that it radically transformed them, from being followers to evangelizers. One of them, Andrew, looked for his brother, Simon, and eagerly broke the good news to him: “We have found the Messiah!”

Every day the Lord invites us: “Come, follow me.” Like the two disciples, many of us would readily follow him. But he would invariably pose the same question: “What are you looking for?” As the great philosopher Aristotle wrote, “Those who wish to succeed must ask the right preliminary questions” (Metaphysics). And I believe this is one of the important preliminary questions we need to ask ourselves before seriously deciding to follow Jesus.

People follow Jesus for various reasons, depending on one’s idea about him. As Thomas Merton said, “Our idea of God tells us more about ourselves than about Him.” This has been adequately shown in the Gospels. Many see him as the great Healer. And so they follow him in order to be healed of their various ailments. Others acknowledge him as the one who teaches with authority. They follow him because they like to listen to his teachings. Still others admire him as the Miracle Worker and they want to witness his miracles. And some, like the Pharisees, consider him as enemy and threat to their authority and status. So, they follow him to catch him in his speech and have something to accuse him of.

This Sunday, therefore, Jesus asks us: “What you are looking for?” In other words, he wants to know why we are following him. This is a crucial question that has to be answered honestly in order to purify our motivations and intensify our commitment to follow him. Peter accurately responded: “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of everlasting life.”

On this second Sunday, as we begin a new series of lessons from the Gospel, let us be clear about our motivations. We follow Jesus because we profess our firm belief in him as our Lord and God. We humbly acknowledge that without him, we are nothing, and we can do nothing. He is the reason for our being and existence. In him alone can we find fullness of life, happiness and salvation. Fully knowing this, we are strengthened and encouraged to face whatever challenges and trials life may give us. As Viktor E. Frankl said,“Those who have a ‘why’ to live, can bear with almost any ‘how’” (Man’s Search for Meaning). It is only Jesus that makes our life meaningful and fruitful even in the midst of pain and suffering.

As we look around us, we see so many lost and wandering souls. They go through life looking for meaning and happiness in the world of drugs, vices, materialism and selfishness.  Like St. John the Baptist, we have the duty to tell them about Jesus: “Behold, the Lamb of God!” And like St. Andrew, we must bring them to Jesus that they, too, may find the true meaning of life.

Admittedly, this is no easy task. People in modern society have become intoxicated with worldly pleasures and selfish ambitions that the Lord’s words fall on deaf ears and hardened hearts. Our Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI is fully aware of this. That is why he is calling for a “new evangelization.” He said that, “proclaiming Jesus Christ, the sole Savior of the world, is more complex today than in the past...” Hence, the Church’s message“needs to be renewed today in order to convince modern persons, who are often distracted and insensitive. That is why the new evangelization must find ways to make the proclamation of salvation more effective…” (Speech tomembers of the Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization, May 30, 2011).

It is precisely with this “new evangelization” in mind that the Church has launched the “Year of Faith”, from October 11th, 2012 to November 24th, 2013. It coincided with the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council and the 20th anniversary of the publication of the new Catechism of the Catholic Church. According to the Pope’s Apostolic letter, Porta Fidei, the goal of this celebration is conversion and to re-discover faith, so that all members of the Church can become credible witnesses of truth. (ROME Reports TV News Agency, Jan. 07-12).

The world is in deep crisis. We need, more than ever, to strengthen our faith in the abiding presence of Jesus Christ. And as Pope Benedict XVI wrote, “Let us not fear the future, even when it can appear with bleak colors, because the God of Jesus Christ, who entered history to open it to its transcendent fulfillment, is the alpha and the omega, the first and the last.” (Source: Fr. Mike Lagrimas, Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish, Palmera Springs 3, Susano Road, Camarin, Novaliches, Caloocan City 1422).

Reflection 5 – Finding And Telling

He first found his own brother Simon, and said to him, “We have found the Messiah.” –John 1:41

Many years ago some prospectors were panning for gold in Montana when one of them found an unusual stone. Breaking it open, he saw that it contained gold. Working eagerly, the men soon discovered an abundance of the precious metal. With unrestrained delight they shouted, “We’ve found it! We’ve found gold! We’re rich!”

Before going into town for supplies, they agreed not to tell a soul about their find. While in town, not one of them breathed a word about their discovery. When they were about to return to camp, though, a group of men had gathered and were ready to follow them.

“You’ve found gold,” the group said. “Who told you?” asked the prospectors. “No one,” they replied. “Your faces showed it!”

It’s much like that when a person discovers Christ. The joy of sins forgiven and a new relationship with Him shows on that person’s face and in his transformed life.

Those miners, of course, wanted to keep quiet about their find, but we as Christians should be eager to let people know about ours. Finding Christ is life’s greatest discovery, and our joy increases when we share it with others. As believers, our highest delight is both in finding and in telling.

Let us serve the Lord with gladness
And enthusiastic praise,
Telling all who do not know Him
Of His great and wondrous ways.

The good news of Christ is too good to keep to yourself (Source: Our Daily Bread, RBC Ministries).

Reflection 6 – What Do You Seek?

Jesus turned, and seeing them following, said to them, “What do you seek?” —John 1:38

How would you answer if Jesus were to ask you, “What do you seek?” (John 1:38). Would you ask Him for health and fitness? A better job? A happier marriage? Financial security? Vindication from a false accusation? Salvation for a wayward loved one? An explanation of some difficult theological concept?

For two disciples of John the Baptist, this situation was more than an exercise in imagination. One day while they were with John, Jesus walked by and John announced, “Behold the Lamb of God!” (v.36). Instead of continuing to follow John, his two disciples started following Jesus.

When Jesus saw them, He asked, “What do you seek?” (v.38).

Apparently John had taught them well, because their answer indicated that they were not seeking something for themselves but Jesus Himself. They wanted to know where Jesus was staying. Not only did Jesus show them the place, He spent the remainder of the day with them.

I wonder how often we miss an opportunity to spend time with Jesus because we’re seeking something other than His presence. I know from experience that the more time I spend with Jesus, the less desire I have for a lot of things that once seemed very important.
— Julie Ackerman Link

To walk in fellowship with Christ
And sense His love so deep and true
Brings to the soul its highest joy
As nothing in this world can do. —D. De Haan

Jesus longs for our fellowship even more than we long for His (Source: Our Daily Bread, RBC Ministries).

Reflection 7 – “Speak, Lord, Your Servant Is Listening”—“Come and See”

Purpose: In John’s Gospel, Jesus invites Andrew and the other disciple of John the Baptist to “come and see” and to abide with him. We too will surely be transformed if we respond generously to the call of Jesus and activate our baptismal vocation.

Today, as we begin the “ordinary time” of the liturgical year, God’s Word never ceases to amaze us and challenge us as we hear the calling of the young boy Samuel, and the “Come and see” of our Lord Jesus to the two disciples of John the Baptist—one of them being Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter.

Samuel is Hannah’s only son, the son whom she bore after she pleaded with God to give her a son in her barrenness, a son whom she would consecrate to God. The Lord indeed answers her prayer, and she calls him “Shmu-el” which means “God has heard.” Hannah gives her son as an “oblate” to the Lord, entrusting her little boy Samuel to the old priest Eli in the temple of Shiloh “where the ark of God was.”

We are very familiar with this wonderful story of the calling of Samuel, and we often tend to apply it to children preparing for confirmation. But have we ever allowed this story to question us as to our relationship with God? Have we ever heard personally the Lord speaking to us? It could happen while we are before our Lord in Eucharistic adoration, or praying the Rosary, or reading the Scriptures, or marvelling at amazing scenery, or listening at Mass to the Word of God, proclaimed and preached to us. Have we ever genuinely said to God: “Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening”?

Do we pay attention to the urgent invitation of the recent popes to have a personal encounter with Jesus Christ in his Word, especially during the celebration of Holy Mass? Granted, it is far from easy nowadays to listen to God speaking to us in the noisy culture we live in, where television and especially the smartphone are always overused, where distractions and frantic busyness are rampant! In my own life as a priest, I must intentionally commit daily to create those “sacred spaces and moments” in which I give permission to the Lord to speak to me, quieting my inner agitation (the “Martha syndrome”), and responding with a loving surrender of my whole being to the Holy Spirit. If one essential goal of our Christian life is to do God’s will, then it is an absolute necessity for each one of us to allow the Lord Jesus to speak to the depths of our hearts and fill us with his peace. “Speak Lord for your servant is listening.” We need to rediscover the lost but vital art of listening to God!

The Gospel reinforces the importance of the call of God, as John, the beloved disciple, relates in his own way, how Andrew and the other one (most probably John himself) met the Lord for the first time. John remembers vividly the moment of the encounter: “it was about four in the afternoon.” He and Andrew had previously been followers of John the Baptist, who himself pointed to Jesus, saying, “Behold the Lamb of God.” First, they call Jesus “Rabbi” or Teacher, and Jesus invites them to “come and see” and to stay with him. And they remained with him that day.

Again, this begs the question: when we come to Mass as individuals or families, do we come to church, expecting to see the Lord and yearning to abide with him, as we listen attentively to his Word and are united so intimately with him in Holy Communion? Notice that Andrew, right after his stay with Jesus, rushes to tell Simon Peter, his brother, “we have found the Messiah!” Jesus is no longer a mere “Teacher,” but in him, Andrew and John have found the Messiah, the long awaited Savior of Israel!

This is a tangible moment of grace (kairos) for Andrew and John: they had experienced a powerful revelation, an unveiling of their eyes, a conversion of their heart, after responding to Jesus’ invitation to “come and see,” and taking time to abide with him. Andrew cannot contain his joyful eagerness to go and tell his brother about their encounter with the MessiahYeshuah! Andrew brings his brother Simon to Jesus, who “looks at him” and calls him, “You are Simon, son of John; you will be called Cephas, which is translated Peter.”

When we are at Mass or when we are praying and/or reading God’s Word, do we allow Jesus to gaze at us, calling us by name and sending us on a mission? Everyone of us has a unique mission, for, by baptism, we have been called to be “missionary disciples.”

Do you allow the Holy Spirit to stir up in you this calling to be a joyful and bold witness of the risen Lord Jesus in your own environment, in your family, at your workplace, among your friends, in your parish? (Source: Homiletic and Pastoral Review).

Suggestions for Further Reading: Pope Francis, Apostolic Exhortation, “The Joy of The Gospel” (Evangelii Gaudium)

Reflection 8 – Speak, for your servant is listening

In today’s First Reading, Eli appears to have a sort of secret password, a code that will unlock Samuel’s divine puzzle. After the frustration of call and response, Samuel needs a better way, so Eli provides some of the best advice in all of Scripture. When Samuel hears his name, he should respond: “Speak, for your servant is listening.” Samuel does so, and the effect is powerful. Following Samuel’s response, the Lord was with him, not permitting any word of his to be without effect. There is something, then, about Samuel’s answer that can open the secrets of God’s word, and change the lives of one who says it. It is the type of phrase that, when said with all one’s heart, can change everything. The simple statement is worthy of meditation, to see whether we, too, can truly say and mean these words. The brief phrase can be separated into its three main words: speak, servant, and listening—each opening a different aspect of the spiritual life, and our action within it.

Speak: Samuel’s request for the Lord to speak is the portion of the phrase we can relate to most of all. Samuel can tell he has something to learn; he knows there is something bigger than himself that has the answers to the longing within his heart. Naturally, he desires for the One who possesses this wisdom to speak, and to tell him what to do. We resemble Samuel in this respect. How often do we beg the Lord to speak, to tell us what we are to do next, or to explain why something did or didn’t happen. We do this daily, demanding that the Lord explain Himself, or begging the Lord to speak to us in our lives with His guidance and truth. It is the same desire the first disciples have in our Gospel. They see the Rabbi, the one who they think has the answers to the questions in their hearts, and they ask Him: “Where are you staying?” They want this teacher to teach, and so they inquire where He is staying so they can learn more. We, like the disciples, want to learn more; we want the Lord to speak.

Servant: It is the second portion of the line where things get tricky for the Christian. We like to style ourselves as servants of the Lord, willing to follow Him to the ends of the earth if only He will speak! Is this true? Do I really have the heart and the desire of a servant, or am I interested in the Lord’s voice only if He provides me with the news I want, or the direction in life I am interested in taking? The first disciples are faced with this quandary in our Gospel. They’ve asked the Lord to speak… “where are you staying?”… and then they will be tested as to whether they were serious. Jesus immediately responds: “Come, and you will see.” The disciples are faced with a question: Did I mean it? Did I really want to know where Jesus was staying, where he wanted me to go, what he wanted me to do? The disciples don’t know where Jesus is leading them, but their servant hearts allow them to follow, confident that the One who they asked to speak, will lead them to the truth they so desperately crave. Are we willing, like those disciples, to truly follow as a servant, even if the Lord’s voice is confusing, strange, or in a direction we didn’t want or expect?

Listening: However, a desire for the Lord to speak, and a heart ready to answer, are relatively useless without the ability and willingness to hear the voice and direction of the Lord. This is why Samuel’s final word puts the seal on the response that changes his life. This is a great roadblock for the modern Christian. We do desire for the Lord to speak, and perhaps are hearts can even be formed to follow the Lord wherever He leads. But Netflix is fun, and silence is painful. The “dictatorship of noise,” as Cardinal Sarah expresses it, overtakes our minds and hearts, making the thought of quiet and listening appear distant and difficult. Yet, without it, the Christian life falls flat, and Samuel’s response is meaningless. This is why the first disciples’ response to Jesus’ request to “Come” is so powerful… the text says they stayed with him that day. The disciples’ willingness to spend time with the Lord, to abide with Him, to listen to Him, gives them a closeness and a strength that will allow them to continue to follow Him where he leads, and to bring others to Him. It is not possible otherwise. So it is with us! Without listening, without staying with the Lord in silent prayer, our desire for God to speak, and to serve the Lord, are of little use.

“Speak, for your servant is listening.” In which of these three areas do I need some growth? Do I want the Lord’s guidance? Am I willing to follow it? Have I given Him the chance to give it? For if we, like Samuel, can say these words, and to live them like the first disciples, our lives too will be changed forever! – Read the source:

Reflection 9 – What are you looking for?

Like Jesus did to Andrew, who became one of his first disciples, in this Sunday’s Gospel passage, he says to you and to each of us: “What are you looking for?” When you pray, and when you look at a crucifix, or when you see a picture of Jesus, what exactly are you looking for?

Jesus says: “Come and see!” Come and see what? His love? His healing power? His supernatural ability to answer our prayers? Whatever we’re looking for, the reason we’re seeking it is because we don’t yet have it.

Jesus is the fulfillment of every promise by God the Father. Jesus is the fullness of love, the provider of mercy, the divine healer, the perfect mediator of all our prayers and concerns and everything else we truly need. So, why does it feel like something is still missing? Why do our lives feel incomplete? Why do our prayers seem unanswered?

The answer is revealed in what happened after Andrew began to follow Jesus. We read about it in Samuel’s response to God’s invitation. We proclaim it in the Responsorial Psalm: “Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will.”

Andrew, his brother Simon Peter, and the other disciples were privileged to witness first-hand the wondrous miracles of Jesus. They personally experienced God’s love through the gentle eyes of Jesus, the tone of kindness in his voice, and the forgiveness that was visible in his smile.

Yet with all of this, they did not really find all that they were looking for (remember how easily Peter felt afraid or confused or uncertain) until they were on the giving end of it. �They didn’t discover the fullness of Jesus until Jesus was no longer present in the flesh and they accepted their calling to continue Christ’s earthly ministry.

The same is true for us who have never seen Jesus’ actual eyes or heard his actual voice. We find what we’re seeking when we give it to others. Why? Because then we discover that we really had it all along! This is the miracle of “Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will.”

Questions for Personal Reflection:
What do you need from Jesus that he doesn’t seem to be providing yet? At the core of your prayer requests, what is it you’re really seeking? How can you find it by doing the will of God? Contemplate this question until you figure out something to do. Then do it and see what happens.

Questions for Community Faith Sharing:
Describe a time when you gave away what you thought you didn’t have. Perhaps it was money or time. Perhaps it was patience or hope or love itself. How were you doing the will of God? What happened to your own needs afterward? – Read the source:

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Reflection 10 – St. Gregory Nazianzen (329-390 A.D.)

After his baptism at 30, Gregory gladly accepted his friend Basil’s invitation to join him in a newly founded monastery. The solitude was broken when Gregory’s father, a bishop, needed help in his diocese and estate. It seems that Gregory was ordained a priest practically by force, and only reluctantly accepted the responsibility. He skillfully avoided a schism that threatened when his own father made compromises with Arianism. At 41, Gregory was chosen suffragan bishop of Caesarea and at once came into conflict with Valens, the emperor, who supported the Arians. An unfortunate by-product of the battle was the cooling of the friendship of two saints. Basil, his archbishop, sent him to a miserable and unhealthy town on the border of unjustly created divisions in his diocese. Basil reproached Gregory for not going to his see.

When protection for Arianism ended with the death of Valens, Gregory was called to rebuild the faith in the great see of Constantinople, which had been under Arian teachers for three decades. Retiring and sensitive, he dreaded being drawn into the whirlpool of corruption and violence. He first stayed at a friend’s home, which became the only orthodox church in the city. In such surroundings, he began giving the great sermons on the Trinity for which he is famous. In time, Gregory did rebuild the faith in the city, but at the cost of great suffering, slander, insults and even personal violence. An interloper even tried to take over his bishopric.

His last days were spent in solitude and austerity. He wrote religious poetry, some of it autobiographical, of great depth and beauty. He was acclaimed simply as “the Theologian.”


It may be small comfort, but post-Vatican II turmoil in the Church is a mild storm compared to the devastation caused by the Arian heresy, a trauma the Church has never forgotten. Christ did not promise the kind of peace we would love to have—no problems, no opposition, no pain. In one way or another, holiness is always the way of the cross.


“God accepts our desires as though they were a great value. He longs ardently for us to desire and love him. He accepts our petitions for benefits as though we were doing him a favor. His joy in giving is greater than ours in receiving. So let us not be apathetic in our asking, nor set too narrow bounds to our requests; nor ask for frivolous things unworthy of God’s greatness.”

Read the source:

Catholic saints are holy people and human people who lived extraordinary lives. Each saint the Church honors responded to God’s invitation to use his or her unique gifts. God calls each one of us to be a saint. Click here to receive Saint of the Day in your email.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
For his father, see Gregory of Nazianzus the Elder.

Icon of St. Gregory the Theologian
Fresco from Kariye Camii, Istanbul, Turkey
DIED 25 January 390
Arianzum, Cappadocia
VENERATED IN Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodoxy
Roman Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
CANONIZED pre-congregation
MAJOR SHRINE Patriarchal Cathedral of St. George in the Fanar
FEAST Eastern Orthodox Church: January 25 (primary feast day)
January 30 (Three Great Hierarchs)
Roman Catholic Church: January 2 (c. 1500–1969 May 9)
Anglican Communion: January 2
Episcopal Church May 9
Lutheran Church: January 10 (LCMS); June 14 (ELCA)
ATTRIBUTES Vested as a bishop, wearing anomophorion; holding a Gospel Book or scrollIconographically, he is depicted as balding with a bushy white beard.

Gregory of Nazianzus (GreekΓρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329[1] – 25 January 390[1][2]), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologician. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age.[3]:xxi As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantinetheologians and church officials.[3]:xxiv

Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the “Trinitarian Theologian”. Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers.

Gregory is a saint in both Eastern and Western Christianity. In the Roman Catholic Church he is numbered among theDoctors of the Church; in Eastern Orthodoxy and the Eastern Catholic Churches he is revered as one of the Three Holy Hierarchs, along with Basil the Great and John Chrysostom.

He is also one of only three men in the life of the Orthodox Church who have been officially designated “Theologian” by epithet,[4] the other two being St. John the Theologian (the Evangelist), and St. Symeon the New Theologian.


Early life and education[edit]

Gregory was born of Greek parentage[5] in the family estate of Karbala outside the village of Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in southwest Cappadocia.[6]:18 His parents, Gregory and Nonna, were wealthy land-owners. In AD 325 Nonna converted her husband, a Hypsistarian, to Christianity; he was subsequently ordained as bishop of Nazianzus in 328 or 329.[3]:vii The young Gregory and his brother, Caesarius, first studied at home with their uncle Amphylokhios. Gregory went on to study advanced rhetoric and philosophy in Nazianzus, CaesareaAlexandria and Athens. On the way to Athens his ship encountered a violent storm, and the terrified Gregory prayed to Christ that if He would deliver him, he would dedicate his life to His service.[3]:28 While at Athens, he developed a close friendship with his fellow student Basil of Caesarea and also made the acquaintance of Flavius Claudius Julianus, who would later become the emperor known as Julian the Apostate.[6]:19,25 In Athens, Gregory studied under the famous rhetoricians Himerius andProaeresius.[7] Upon finishing his education, he taught rhetoric in Athens for a short time.


In 361 Gregory returned to Nazianzus and was ordained a presbyterby his father, who wanted him to assist with caring for local Christians.[3]:99–102 The younger Gregory, who had been considering a monastic existence, resented his father’s decision to force him to choose between priestly services and a solitary existence, calling it an “act of tyranny”.[6]:32[8] Leaving home after a few days, he met his friend Basil at Annesoi, where the two lived as ascetics.[3]:102 However, Basil urged him to return home to assist his father, which he did for the next year. Arriving at Nazianzus, Gregory found the local Christian community split by theological differences and his father accused of heresy by local monks.[3]:107 Gregory helped to heal the division through a combination of personal diplomacy and oratory.

By this time Emperor Julian had publicly declared himself in opposition to Christianity.[3]:115 In response to the emperor’s rejection of the Christian faith, Gregory composed his Invectives Against Julianbetween 362 and 363.Invectives asserts that Christianity will overcome imperfect rulers such as Julian through love and patience. This process as described by Gregory is the public manifestation of the process of deification (theosis), which leads to a spiritual elevation and mystical union with God.[3]:121 Julian resolved, in late 362, to vigorously prosecute Gregory and his other Christian critics; however, the emperor perished the following year during a campaign against the Persians.[3]:125–6 With the death of the emperor, Gregory and the Eastern churches were no longer under the threat of persecution, as the new emperor Jovian was an avowed Christian and supporter of the church.[3]:130

Gregory spent the next few years combating Arianism, which threatened to divide the region of Cappadocia. In this tense environment, Gregory interceded on behalf of his friend Basil with Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea (Mazaca).[3]:138–42 The two friends then entered a period of close fraternal cooperation as they participated in a great rhetorical contest of the Caesarean church precipitated by the arrival of accomplished Arian theologians and rhetors.[3]:143 In the subsequent public debates, presided over by agents of the Emperor Valens, Gregory and Basil emerged triumphant. This success confirmed for both Gregory and Basil that their futures lay in administration of the Church.[3]:143 Basil, who had long displayed inclinations to the episcopacy, was elected bishop of the see of Caesarea in Cappadocia in 370.

Episcopate in Sasima and Nazianzus[edit]

Gregory was ordained Bishop of Sasima in 372 by Basil.[3]:190–5 Basil created this see in order to strengthen his position in his dispute with Anthimus, bishop ofTyana.[7] The ambitions of Gregory’s father to have his son rise in the Church hierarchy and the insistence of his friend Basil convinced Gregory to accept this position despite his reservations. Gregory would later refer to his episcopal ordination as forced upon him by his strong-willed father and Basil.[3]:187–92 Describing his new bishopric, Gregory lamented how it was nothing more than an “utterly dreadful, pokey little hole; a paltry horse-stop on the main road … devoid of water, vegetation, or the company of gentlemen … this was my Church of Sasima!”[9] He made little effort to administer his new diocese, complaining to Basil that he preferred instead to pursue a contemplative life.[6]:38–9

By late 372 Gregory returned to Nazianzus to assist his dying father with the administration of his diocese.[3]:199 This strained his relationship with Basil, who insisted that Gregory resume his post at Sasima. Gregory retorted that he had no intention to continue to play the role of pawn to advance Basil’s interests.[10] He instead focused his attention on his new duties as co-adjutor of Nazianzus. It was here that Gregory preached the first of his great episcopal orations.

Following the deaths of his mother and father in 374, Gregory continued to administer the Diocese of Nazianzus but refused to be named bishop. Donating most of his inheritance to the needy, he lived an austere existence.[7] At the end of 375 he withdrew to a monastery at Seleukia, living there for three years. Near the end of this period his friend Basil died. Although Gregory’s health did not permit him to attend the funeral, he wrote a heartfelt letter of condolence to Basil’s brother, Gregory of Nyssa and composed twelve memorial poems dedicated to the memory of his departed friend.

Gregory at Constantinople[edit]

Emperor Valens died in 378. The accession of Theodosius I, a steadfast supporter of Nicene orthodoxy, was good news to those who wished to purge Constantinople of Arian and Apollinarian domination.[3]:235 The exiled Nicene party gradually returned to the city. From his deathbed, Basil reminded them of Gregory’s capabilities and likely recommended his friend to champion the trinitarian cause in Constantinople.[3]:235–6[11]

In 379, the Antioch synod and its archbishop, Meletios, asked Gregory to go to Constantinople to lead a theological campaign to win over that city to Nicene orthodoxy.[6]:42 After much hesitation, Gregory agreed. His cousin Theodosia offered him a villa for his residence; Gregory immediately transformed much of it into a church, naming it Anastasia, “a scene for the resurrection of the faith”.[3]:241[12] From this little chapel he delivered five powerful discourses on Nicene doctrine, explaining the nature of the Trinity and the unity of the Godhead.[7] Refuting the Eunomion denial of the Holy Spirit’s divinity, Gregory offered this argument:

Look at these facts: Christ is born, the Holy Spirit is His Forerunner. Christ is baptized, the Spirit bears witness to this … Christ works miracles, the Spirit accompanies them. Christ ascends, the Spirit takes His place. What great things are there in the idea of God which are not in His power? What titles appertaining to God do not apply also to Him, except for Unbegotten and Begotten? I tremble when I think of such an abundance of titles, and how many Names they blaspheme, those who revolt against the Spirit![13]

Gregory’s homilies were well received and attracted ever-growing crowds to Anastasia. Fearing his popularity, his opponents decided to strike. On the vigil of Easterin 379, an Arian mob burst into his church during worship services, wounding Gregory and killing another bishop. Escaping the mob, Gregory next found himself betrayed by his erstwhile friend, the philosopher Maximus the Cynic. Maximus, who was in secret alliance with Peter, bishop of Alexandria, attempted to seize Gregory’s position and have himself ordained bishop of Constantinople.[6]:43 Shocked, Gregory decided to resign his office, but the faction faithful to him induced him to stay and ejected Maximus. However, the episode left him embarrassed and exposed him to criticism as a provincial simpleton unable to cope with intrigues of the imperial city.[6]:43

Affairs in Constantinople remained confused as Gregory’s position was still unofficial and Arian priests occupied many important churches. The arrival of the emperor Theodosius in 380 settled matters in Gregory’s favor. The emperor, determined to eliminate Arianism, expelled Bishop Demophilus. Gregory was subsequently enthroned as bishop of Constantinople at the Basilica of the Apostles, replacing Demophilus.[6]:45

Second Ecumenical Council and retirement to Arianzum[edit]

A Byzantine-style icon depicting theThree Holy Hierarchs(left to right:)Basil the GreatJohn Chrysostom and Gregory the Theologian.

Theodosius wanted to further unify the entire empire behind the orthodox position and decided to convene a church council to resolve matters of faith and discipline.[6]:45 Gregory was of similar mind in wishing to unify Christianity. In the spring of 381 they convened the Second Ecumenical Council in Constantinople, which was attended by 150 Eastern bishops. After the death of the presiding bishop, Meletius of Antioch, Gregory was selected to lead the Council. Hoping to reconcile the West with the East, he offered to recognize Paulinus as Patriarch of Antioch. The Egyptian and Macedonian bishops who had supported Maximus’s ordination arrived late for the Council. Once there, they refused to recognise Gregory’s position as head of the church of Constantinople, arguing that his transfer from the See of Sasima was canonically illegitimate.[3]:358–9

Gregory was physically exhausted and worried that he was losing the confidence of the bishops and the emperor.[3]:359Rather than press his case and risk further division, he decided to resign his office: “Let me be as the Prophet Jonah! I was responsible for the storm, but I would sacrifice myself for the salvation of the ship. Seize me and throw me … I was not happy when I ascended the throne, and gladly would I descend it.”[14] He shocked the Council with his surprise resignation and then delivered a dramatic speech to Theodosius asking to be released from his offices. The emperor, moved by his words, applauded, commended his labor and granted his resignation. The Council asked him to appear once more for a farewell ritual and celebratory orations. Gregory used this occasion to deliver a final address (Or. 42) and then departed.[3]:361

Returning to his homeland of Cappadocia, Gregory once again resumed his position as bishop of Nazianzus. He spent the next year combating the local Apollinarian heretics and struggling with periodic illness. He also began composing De Vita Sua, his autobiographical poem.[6]:50 By the end of 383 he found his health too feeble to cope with episcopal duties. Gregory established Eulalius as bishop of Nazianzus and then withdrew into the solitude of Arianzum. After enjoying six peaceful years in retirement at his family estate, he died on January 25 in 390.

Throughout his life Gregory faced stark choices. Should he pursue studies as a rhetor or philosopher? Would a monastic life be more appropriate than public ministry? Was it better to blaze his own path or follow the course mapped for him by his father and Basil? Gregory’s writings illuminate the conflicts which both tormented and motivated him. Biographers suggest that it was this dialectic which defined him, forged his character and inspired his search for meaning and truth.[6]:54


Andrei RublevGregory the Theologian (1408),Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir.

Theological and other works[edit]

Gregory’s most significant theological contributions arose from his defense of the doctrine of the Trinity. He is especially noted for his contributions to the field of pneumatology—that is, theology concerning the nature of the Holy Spirit.[15] In this regard, Gregory is the first to use the idea of procession to describe the relationship between the Spirit and the Godhead: “The Holy Spirit is truly Spirit, coming forth from the Father indeed but not after the manner of the Son, for it is not by generation but by procession, since I must coin a word for the sake of clearness.”[16] Although Gregory does not fully develop the concept, the idea of procession would shape most later thought about the Holy Spirit.[17]

He emphasized that Jesus did not cease to be God when he became a man, nor did he lose any of his divine attributes when he took on human nature. Furthermore, Gregory asserted that Christ was fully human, including a full human soul. He also proclaimed the eternality of the Holy Spirit, saying that the Holy Spirit’s actions were somewhat hidden in the Old Testament but much clearer since the ascension of Jesus into Heaven and the descent of the Holy Spirit at the feast of Pentecost.

In contrast to the Neo-Arian belief that the Son is anomoios, or “unlike” the Father, and with the Semi-Arian assertion that the Son ishomoiousios, or “like” the Father, Gregory and his fellow Cappadocians maintained the Nicaean doctrine of homoousia, orconsubstantialityof the Son with the Father.[18]:9,10 The Cappadocian Fathers asserted that God’s nature is unknowable to man; helped to develop the framework of hypostases, or three persons united in a single Godhead; illustrated how Jesus is the eikon of the Father; and explained the concept of theosis, the belief that all Christians can be assimilated with God in “imitation of the incarnate Son as the divine model.”[18]:10

Some of Gregory’s theological writings suggest that, like his friend Gregory of Nyssa, he may have supported some form of the doctrine of apocatastasis, the belief that God will bring all of creation into harmony with the Kingdom of Heaven.[19] This led some late-nineteenth century Christian universalists, notably J. W. Hanson and Philip Schaff, to describe Gregory’s theology as universalist.[20] This view of Gregory is also held by some modern theologians, such as John Sachs who said that Gregory had “leanings” toward apocatastasis, but in a “cautious, undogmatic” way.[21] However, it is not clear or universally accepted that Gregory held to the doctrine of apocatastasis.[22]

Apart from the several theological discourses, Gregory was also one of the most important early Christian men of letters, a very accomplished orator, perhaps one of the greatest of his time,[18]:21 and also a very prolific poet, writing several poems with theological and moral matter and some with biographical content.


Gregory’s great nephew Nichobulos served as his literary executor, preserving and editing many of his writings. A cousin, Eulalios, published several of Gregory’s more noteworthy works in 391.[3]:xi By 400, Rufinius began translating his orations into Latin. As Gregory’s works circulated throughout the empire they influenced theological thought. His orations were cited as authoritative by the First Council of Ephesus in 431. By 451 he was designated Theologus, or Theologian by theCouncil of Chalcedon[3]:xi — a title held by no others save John the Apostle[7] and Symeon the New Theologian (949–1022 AD). He is widely quoted by Eastern Orthodox theologians and highly regarded as a defender of the Christian faith. His contributions to Trinitarian theology are also influential and often cited in the Western churches.[23] Paul Tillich credits Gregory of Nazianzus for having “created the definitive formulae for the doctrine of the trinity”.[24] Additionally, the Liturgy of St Gregory the Theologian in use by the Coptic Church is named after him.[25]


Following his death, Saint Gregory was buried at Nazianzus. His relics were transferred to Constantinople in 950, into the Church of the Holy Apostles. Part of the relics were taken from Constantinople by Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade, in 1204, and ended up in Rome. On November 27, 2004, those relics, along with those of John Chrysostom, were returned to Istanbul (Constantinople) by Pope John Paul II, with the Vatican retaining a small portion of both. The relics are now enshrined in the Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Georgein the Fanar.[26]


During the six years of life which remained to him after his final retirement to his birthplace, Gregory composed the greater part of the copious poetical works which has passed down from generation. These include a valuable autobiographical poem of nearly 2,000 lines; about one hundred other shorter poems relating to his past career; and a large number of epitaphs, epigrams, and epistles to well-known people during that era. The poems that he wrote that dealt with his personal affairs refer to the continuous illness and severe sufferings (physical and spiritual) which assailed him during his last years. In the tiny plot of ground at Arianzus, all that remained to him of his rich inheritance was by a fountain near which there was a shady walk. At this point, Gregory retired to spend his days as a hermit. It was at this point he decided to write theological discourses and poetry of both a religious and an autobiographical nature.[27] He would sometimes receive occasional visits from intimate friends, as well as sometimes from strangers who were attracted to his retreat by his large reputation for sanctity and learning. He died on January 25, 390, although the exact date of his death is unknown.[28]

Feast day[edit]

Some Western churches celebrate Gregory’s feast day on January 2.[29] The Lutheran Church Missouri Synod commemorates Gregory, along with Basil the Greatand Gregory of Nyssa (the Cappadocian Fathers) on January 10.[30] The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate two feast days in Gregory’s honor. January 25 is his primary feast; January 30, known as the feast of the Three Great Hierarchs, commemorates him along with John Chrysostom and Basil of Caesarea.[31][32] The US Episcopal Church now remembers this Gregory on May 9, a week after the feast of his mentor St. Athanasius.,[33] and theEvangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates Gregory of Nazianzus together with his friends St. Basil the Great and St. Gregory of Nyssa on June 14.

See also[edit]


  1. Jump up to:a b Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, January 2.
  2. Jump up^ Saint Gregory the Theologian
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y McGuckin, John (2001) Saint Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography, Crestwood, NY.
  4. Jump up^ Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Γρηγόριος ὁ Θεολόγος Ἀρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως. 25 Ιανουαρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  5. Jump up^ Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries, Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries (2005). The Riverside Dictionary of Biography. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 336.ISBN 9780618493371Gregory of Nazianzus or Nazianzen, St c. 330-c. 389 AD •Greek prelate and theologian- Born of Greek parents in Cappadocia, he was educated in Caesarea, Alexandria and Athens.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k Ruether, Rosemary Radford (1969), Gregory of Nazianzus: Rhetor and Philosopher, Oxford University Press
  7. Jump up to:a b c d e Hunter-Blair, DO (1910), “Gregory of Nazianzus”, The Catholic Encyclopedia, Robert Appleton
  8. Jump up^ Migne, J.P. (ed), Patrologiae Graecae (PG), (1857–66), 37.1053, Carm. de vita sua, l.345
  9. Jump up^ Gregory, as quoted in PG 37.1059–60, De Vita Sua, vv. 439–46.
  10. Jump up^ Gallay, P. (1964), Grégoire de Nazianze (in French), Paris, p. 61; quoting from Ep. 48, PG 37.97.
  11. Jump up^ Orat. 43.2, PG 36.497.
  12. Jump up^ 2 Kings 4:8 and Orat. 26.17, PG 35.1249.
  13. Jump up^ Gregory of Nazianzus, Or, The Orthodox Church of America, p. 31:29, retrieved May 2, 2007
  14. Jump up^ PG, 37.1157–9, Carm. de vita sua, ll 1828–55.
  15. Jump up^ Michael O’Carroll, “Gregory of Nazianzus” in Trinitas(Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1987).
  16. Jump up^ Gregory of Nazianzus, Five Theological Orations, oration five. This fifth oration deals entirely with the Holy Spirit.
  17. Jump up^ HEW Turner and Francis Young, “Procession(s)” in The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology, ed. A. Richardson & J. Bowden (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983). Through Augustine, the idea would develop in the West into “double-procession,” resulting in the Filioque clause and the split between Eastern and Western Christianity.
  18. Jump up to:a b c Børtnes (2006), Missing or empty |title=(help).
  19. Jump up^ Apocatastasis“. New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. I.
  20. Jump up^ Hanson, JW Universalism: The Prevailing Doctrine Of The Christian Church During Its First Five Hundred Years. Chapter XV: Gregory Nazianzen. Boston and Chicago Universalist Publishing House, 1899.
  21. Jump up^ Sachs, John R. “Apocatastasis in Patristic Theology.” Theological Studies. 54 (December 1993), p. 632.
  22. Jump up^ David L. Balas, “Apokatastasis” in The Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, second edition, ed. Everett Ferguson (New York: Garland Publishing, 1997), detailsGregory of Nyssa‘s adherence to the doctrine, while making no mention of Nazianzan.
  23. Jump up^ See how the 1992 edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church cites a variety of Gregory’s orations
  24. Jump up^ Tillich, Paul. A History of Christian Thought (Simon and Schuster, 1968), p. 76.
  25. Jump up^ Chaillot, Christine (2006), “The Ancient Oriental Churches”, in Wainwright, Geoffrey, The Oxford history of Christian worship, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, p. 139, ISBN 978-0-19-513886-3
  26. Jump up^ Fisher, Ian (November 28, 2004), “Pope returns remains of 2 Orthodox patriarchs”, San Diego Union-Tribune, retrieved 2012-10-24
  27. Jump up^
  28. Jump up^
  29. Jump up^ The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography (2003), Houghton Mifflin, 2003, p. 643, ISBN 9780618252107, retrieved 18 October 2012
  30. Jump up^ Lutheranism 101, CPH, St. Louis, 2010, p.277
  31. Jump up^ “St Gregory the Theologian the Archbishop of Constantinople”OCA Online Feast Days. Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
  32. Jump up^ “Synaxis of the Ecumenical Teachers and Hierarchs: Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom”OCA Online Feast Days. Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
  33. Jump up^


Further reading[edit]

  • Michael Azkoul, “St. Gregory the Theologian: Poetry and Faith,” Patristic and Byzantine Review 14.1–3 (1995): 59–68.
  • Brian Daley, ed., Gregory Nazianzen. Early Church Fathers. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books, 2005. ISBN 0-415-12181-7, pp. 192.
  • K. Demoen, “Biblical vs. Non-Biblical Vocabulary in Gregorius Nazianzenus; a Quantitative Approach,” Informatique 2 (1988–89): 243–53.
  • J. Egan, “Gregory of Nazianzus and the Logos Doctrine,” J. Plevnic, ed., Word and Spirit: Essays in Honor of David Michael Stanley. Willowdale, ON: 1975. pp. 281–322.
  • Anna-Stina Ellverson, The Dual Nature of Man: A Study in the Theological Anthropology of Gregory of Nazianzus. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 1981. ISBN 91-554-1206-8. {}
  • Gerald Fitzpatrick, “St Gregory Nazianzen: Education for Salvation,” Patristic and Byzantine Review 10.1–2 (1991): 47–55.
  • R.C. Gregg, Consolation Philosophy: Greek and Christian Paideia in Basil and the Two Gregories. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8132-1000-3. {}
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