Readings & Reflections: Saturday of the First Week in Ordinary Time & St. Hilary, January 13,2018
Born into a pagan family, Hilary is said to have studied his way into the Church, meditating in part on the prologue to John’s Gospel. In 353 A.D. he was chosen bishop of Poitier, France. Only three years after being elected bishop of Poitiers, France. Hilary was sent into exile in Phrygia, present-day Turkey by the emperor, professed Arian, because he refused to condemn Athanasius. There Hilary composed his great doctrinal work On the Trinity. “Anyone who fails to see that Christ Jesus was at once true God and truly man is blind to his own life: to deny Christ Jesus, or God the Spirit, or our own flesh, is equally perilous,” he wrote. Hilary governed his diocese from afar, thwarted only the slow mail delivery. He returned to Poitiers and died in 367 A.D. Hilary was dubbed the “Athanasius of the West” because, like the great doctor from Alexandria, he worked tirelessly to uphold the truth of the divinity of the Son of God in an age dominated by the Arian heresy. Hilary was hailed by Saint Augustine as “the most illustrious doctor of the churches.”
In today’s Gospel Jesus says to Levi, “Follow me.” Christ “makes a blessing” of former sinners whom he enlists “to call sinners.” What Samuel says to the newly anointed Saul is true of every apostle: “You are to save them from the group of their enemies.” In the Lord’s strength we are glad.
Heavenly Father, we may have missed the essential quality of being a true follower of your Son. No matter how many times and in how many different ways we have received the message of Jesus to love one another and to act lovingly toward one another, we continue to fail in loving our neighbor. As anointed followers of Jesus, bless us with the grace to be able to invite and welcome the stranger, the lonely, and the one who seems different and in some way unacceptable. Remind us always that we are not commissioned to judge, ostracize or disparage anyone. Amen.
1 sm 9:1-4, 17-19; 10:1
There was a stalwart man from Benjamin named Kish,
who was the son of Abiel, son of Zeror,
son of Becorath, son of Aphiah, a Benjaminite.
He had a son named Saul, who was a handsome young man.
There was no other child of Israel more handsome than Saul;
he stood head and shoulders above the people.
Now the asses of Saul’s father, Kish, had wandered off.
Kish said to his son Saul, “Take one of the servants with you
and go out and hunt for the asses.”
Accordingly they went through the hill country of Ephraim,
and through the land of Shalishah.
Not finding them there,
they continued through the land of Shaalim without success.
They also went through the land of Benjamin,
but they failed to find the animals.
When Samuel caught sight of Saul, the LORD assured him,
“This is the man of whom I told you; he is to govern my people.”
Saul met Samuel in the gateway and said,
“Please tell me where the seer lives.”
Samuel answered Saul: “I am the seer.
Go up ahead of me to the high place and eat with me today.
In the morning, before dismissing you,
I will tell you whatever you wish.”
Then, from a flask he had with him, Samuel poured oil on Saul’s head;
he also kissed him, saying:
“The LORD anoints you commander over his heritage.
You are to govern the LORD’s people Israel,
and to save them from the grasp of their enemies roundabout.
“This will be the sign for you
that the LORD has anointed you commander over his heritage.”
The word of the Lord.
Responsorial Psalm ps 21:2-3, 4-5, 6-7
R. (2a) Lord, in your strength the king is glad.
O LORD, in your strength the king is glad;
in your victory how greatly he rejoices!
You have granted him his heart’s desire;
you refused not the wish of his lips.
R. Lord, in your strength the king is glad.
For you welcomed him with goodly blessings,
you placed on his head a crown of pure gold.
He asked life of you: you gave him
length of days forever and ever.
R. Lord, in your strength the king is glad.
Great is his glory in your victory;
majesty and splendor you conferred upon him.
For you made him a blessing forever;
you gladdened him with the joy of your face.
R. Lord, in your strength the king is glad.
Jesus went out along the sea.
All the crowd came to him and he taught them.
As he passed by, he saw Levi, son of Alphaeus,
sitting at the customs post.
Jesus said to him, “Follow me.”
And he got up and followed Jesus.
While he was at table in his house,
many tax collectors and sinners sat with Jesus and his disciples;
for there were many who followed him.
Some scribes who were Pharisees saw that Jesus was eating with sinners and tax collectors and said to his disciples,
“Why does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?”
Jesus heard this and said to them,
“Those who are well do not need a physician, but the sick do.
I did not come to call the righteous but sinners.”
The Gospel of the Lord.
Reflection 1 – Jesus came for the outcasts
In any circle of friends and acquaintances, there are always some who believe that they are spiritually healthy and that they deserve God far more than the others. Such an attitude makes them develop a sense of arrogance that in time their words and actions are not far from those of the scribes of the Pharisee party. Instead of drawing God’s people to Him, they may place a lot of obstacles on peoples’ desire to be with the Lord. Rather than being our Lord’s instruments of love and healing they unknowingly take on the hidden work of the evil one. Their rigidity could not compel their hearts to give compassion on those who need’s God’s loving care. They want God only for themselves and they make God’s work exclusive only to those who belong to their inner circle.
Today, God reminds us that He came for the outcasts, the sinners and the rejected. Jesus, Himself said: “People who are healthy do not need a doctor, sick people do. I have come to call sinners not the self-righteous.” He wants to shed light to the truth that every one of us, even the most healthy in appearance, carry wounds of many sorts, wounds to the heart and the mind as well to the body. All of us are broken, bruised and sinful and no one is far better than the other. He reveals to all of us that man was born in sin and in sin we will all wallow if we do not have God in our lives. Jesus came for all of us and not for a chosen few.
Not one of us is exempt from the need to be healed and be made whole by God’s forgiveness and grace. And it is a comfort to know that our Lord will never give up on us. He comes to us through the different circumstances in our lives. He cares and guides us through His daily word. He ministers to us through other brothers and sisters and asks us never to give up on ourselves and on our neighbor. He assures us that He will bring us to wholeness if we only open our spirits to Him and to one another. God from the very beginning made all of us in his own image and likeness and it is His desire to bring us back to that original state. God in Christ will make us whole. He came to heal us and bring all of us back to our Father’s home.
Today, let us take on God’s call and challenge, “Follow me.” Let us see in every one of our brothers and sisters the likeness of God, no matter how bruised and broken, damaged and distorted they may have been. Remember Jesus once spoke: “Whatever you did for the least of my brethren, you did it for me… And whatever you neglected to do for the least of my brethren, you neglected to do it for me.”
God loves all of us not because we earned it and deserve it but because we belong to Him. As His very own, we should therefore learn how to love all our brothers and sisters not because they earned it, but because they are the Lord’s. Compassion and love for one another heals and brings more souls to our Lord and can transform lives. Let us then love one another in both word and deed just like the way Jesus loved all of us. Let us be inclusive rather than be rigid and exclusive in our ministry work. Let us bring Christ to all!
Jesus was firm and remained focus in His work of bringing all of us back to the Father. He stood and came for people who needed a doctor: the sinful, broken, angry and self-righteous. Jesus Himself said: “Those who are well do not need a physician, but the sick do. I did not come to call the righteous but sinners.”
Let us follow the Jesus model. Jesus’ very words to Levi, son of Alphaeus, sitting at the customs post were: “Follow me.” Let us make His words our very own when we encounter the sinful and broken in our journey to our Father’s home!
Jesus came for the sinner. He therefore came for all of us. Let us share His Word with everyone. “The law of the Lord is perfect, refreshing the soul. The decree of the Lord is trustworthy, giving wisdom to the simple. The precepts of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart. The command of the Lord is clear, enlightening the eye. “
Dear Jesus, Your words, Lord, are spirit and life. “May the words of my mouth and the thought of my heart find favor before you, O Lord, my rock and my redeemer.” Give me the grace to love my neighbor as You have loved me. Amen.
Reflection 2 – Many sinners were sitting with Jesus
What draws us to the throne of God’s mercy and grace? Mark tells us that many people were drawn to Jesus, including the unwanted and the unlovable, such as the lame, the blind, and the lepers, as well as the homeless such as widows and orphans. But public sinners, like the town prostitutes and corrupt tax collectors, were also drawn to Jesus. In calling Levi, who was also named Matthew (see Matthew 9:9) to be one of his disciples, Jesus picked one of the unlikeliest of men – a tax collector who by profession was despised by the people.
Why did the religious leaders find fault with Jesus for making friends with sinners and tax collectors like Levi? The orthodox Jews had a habit of dividing everyone into two groups – those who rigidly kept the law of Moses and its minute regulations and those who did not. They latter were treated like second class citizens. The orthodox scrupulously avoided their company, refused to do business with them, refused to give or receive anything from them, refused to intermarry, and avoided any form of entertainment with them, including table fellowship. Jesus’ association with sinners shocked the sensibilities of these orthodox Jews.
When the Pharisees challenged his unorthodox behavior in eating with public sinners, Jesus’ defense was quite simple. A doctor doesn’t need to visit healthy people; instead he goes to those who are sick. Jesus likewise sought out those in the greatest need. A true physician seeks healing of the whole person – body, mind, and spirit. Jesus came as the divine physician and good shepherd to care for his people and to restore them to wholeness of life.The orthodox Jews were so preoccupied with their own practice of religion that they neglected to help the very people who needed care. Their religion was selfish because they didn’t want to have anything to do with people not like themselves.
Jesus stated his mission in unequivocal terms: I came not to call the righteous, but to call sinners. Ironically the orthodox were as needy as those they despised. All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God(Romans 3:23). The Lord fills us with his grace and mercy. And he wants us, in turn, to seek the good of our neighbors, including the unlikeable and the trouble-maker by showing them the same kindness and mercy which we have received. Do you thank the Lord for the great kindness and mercy he has shown to you?
“Lord Jesus, our Savior, let us now come to you: Our hearts are cold; Lord, warm them with your selfless love. Our hearts are sinful; cleanse them with your precious blood. Our hearts are weak; strengthen them with your joyous Spirit. Our hearts are empty; fill them with your divine presence. Lord Jesus, our hearts are yours; possess them always and only for yourself.” (Prayer of Augustine, 4th century) – Read the source: http://dailyscripture.servantsoftheword.org/readings/2018/jan13.htm
Reflection 3 – Making Friends
Many tax collectors and sinners also sat together with Jesus and His disciples. –Mark 2:15
A letter from a friend described the adjustments that his son and daughter-in-law were facing as young missionaries in a country long resistant to the gospel of Christ. “After some rough early going,” he wrote, “they are getting used to not having modern conveniences and are falling in love with the people.”
A photo showed the couple’s 2-year-old-son Wesley and a waiter in a restaurant, both grinning widely as they shared a moment of friendship. My friend commented, “Ever smiling, Wesley makes friends wherever he goes.” That got me to thinking. Making friends and loving people is the key to sharing the gospel wherever we are, because that’s what Jesus did.
Some religious leaders were surprised when Jesus openly associated with people they considered undesirable. They said to His disciples, “How is it that He eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners?” (Mark 2:16). Yet Jesus was known as the friend of sinners. He said, “I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners, to repentance” (v.17).
A loving heart and a friendly smile go a long way to communicate the love of Christ to the people we meet each day. May they say of us, as they did of little Wesley, “Ever smiling, he makes friends wherever he goes.” — David C. McCasland
To the lost is where Christ went,
Revealing grace from God above;
To lost sinners we’ve been sent
To be their friends, to share God’s love. —Fitzhugh
Loving the lost is the first step in leading them to Christ (Source: Our Daily Bread, RBC Ministries).
Reflection 4 – St. Hilary (315?-368 A.D.)
This staunch defender of the divinity of Christ was a gentle and courteous man, devoted to writing some of the greatest theology on the Trinity, and was like his Master in being labeled a “disturber of the peace.” In a very troubled period in the Church, his holiness was lived out in both scholarship and controversy. He was bishop of Poitiers in France.
Raised a pagan, he was converted to Christianity when he met his God of nature in the Scriptures. His wife was still living when he was chosen, against his will, to be the bishop of Poitiers in France. He was soon taken up with battling what became the scourge of the fourth century, Arianism, which denied the divinity of Christ.
The heresy spread rapidly. St. Jerome said “The world groaned and marveled to find that it was Arian.” When Emperor Constantius ordered all the bishops of the West to sign a condemnation of Athanasius, the great defender of the faith in the East, Hilary refused and was banished from France to far off Phrygia (in modern-day Turkey). Eventually he was called the “Athanasius of the West.” While writing in exile, he was invited by some semi-Arians (hoping for reconciliation) to a council the emperor called to counteract the Council of Nicea. But Hilary predictably defended the Church, and when he sought public debate with the heretical bishop who had exiled him, the Arians, dreading the meeting and its outcome, pleaded with the emperor to send this troublemaker back home. Hilary was welcomed by his people.
Christ said his coming would bring not peace but a sword (see Matthew 10:34). The Gospels offer no support for us if we fantasize about a sunlit holiness that knows no problems. Christ did not escape at the last moment, though he did live happily ever after—after a life of controversy, problems, pain and frustration. Hilary, like all saints, simply had more of the same.
Read the source: http://www.americancatholic.org/features/saints/saint.aspx?id=1259
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilary_of_Poitiers
The Ordination of Saint Hilary. From a 14th-century manuscript.
|“MALLEUS ARIANORUM” AND THE “ATHANASIUS OF THE WEST;”BISHOP, CONFESSOR AND DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH|
|BORN||c. 310 AD
Pictavium, Gaul (modern-day Poitiers, France)
|VENERATED IN||Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
14 January (in some local calendars and pre-1970 General Roman Calendar)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hilaire de Poitiers.|
Hilary (Hilarius) of Poitiers (c. 310 – c. 367) was Bishop of Poitiersand is a Doctor of the Church. He was sometimes referred to as the “Hammer of the Arians” (Latin: Malleus Arianorum) and the “Athanasius of the West.” His name comes from the Latin word for happy or cheerful. His optional memorial in the General Roman Calendar is 13 January. In the past, when this date was occupied by the Octave Day of the Epiphany, his feast day was moved to 14 January.
Hilary was born at Poitiers either at the end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century A.D. His parents were pagans of distinction. He received a good pagan education, which included a high level of Greek. He studied, later on, the Old and New Testament writings, with the result that he abandoned his Neo-Platonism for Christianity, and with his wife and his daughter (traditionally named Saint Abra), was baptized and received into the Church.
The Christians of Poitiers so respected Hilary that about 350 or 353, they unanimously elected him their bishop. At that time Arianismthreatened to overrun the Western Church; Hilary undertook to repel the disruption. One of his first steps was to secure the excommunication, by those of the Gallican hierarchy who still remained orthodox Christians, of Saturninus, the Arian Bishop of Arles, and of Ursacius and Valens, two of his prominent supporters.
About the same time, Hilary wrote to Emperor Constantius II a remonstrance against the persecutions by which the Arians had sought to crush their opponents (Ad Constantium Augustum liber primus, of which the most probable date is 355). Other Historians refer to this first book to Constantius as “Book Against Valens,” of which only fragments are extant. His efforts did not succeed at first, for at the synod of Biterrae (Béziers), summoned by the emperor in 356 with the professed purpose of settling the longstanding dispute, an imperial rescript banished the new bishop, along with Rhodanus of Toulouse, to Phrygia
Hilary spent nearly four years in exile, although the reasons for this banishment remain obscure. The traditional explanation is that Hilary was exiled for refusing to subscribe to the condemnation of Athanasius and the Nicene faith. More recently several scholars have suggested that political opposition to Constantius and support of the usurper Silvanus may have led to Hilary’s exile.
While in Phrygia, however, he continued to govern his diocese, as well as writing two of the most important of his contributions to dogmatic and polemical theology: the De synodis or De fide Orientalium, an epistle addressed in 358 to the Semi-Arian bishops in Gaul, Germany and Britain, analyzing the views of the Eastern bishops on the Nicene controversy. In reviewing the professions of faith of the Oriental bishops in the Councils of Ancyra, Antioch, and Sirmium, he sought to show that sometimes the difference between certain doctrines and orthodox beliefs was rather in the words than in the ideas, which led to his counseling the bishops of the West to be more reserved in their condemnation.
The De trinitate libri XII, composed in 359 and 360, was the first successful expression in Latin of that Council’s theological subtleties originally elaborated in Greek. Although some members of Hilary’s own party thought the first had shown too great a forbearance towards the Arians, Hilary replied to their criticisms in theApologetica ad reprehensores libri de synodis responsa. Hilary was a firm guardian of the Trinity as taught by the Western church, and therefore saw the foreseen Antichrist in those who repudiated the divinity of the Son and thought Him to be but a created Being. “Hence also they who deny that Christ is the Son of God must have Antichrist for their Christ,” was the way he stated it.
In his classic introduction to the works of Hilary Watson summarizes Hilary’s points:
- “They were the forerunners of Antichrist. . . . They bear themselves not as bishops of Christ but as priests of Antichrist. This is not random abuse, but sober recognition of the fact, stated by St. John, that there are many Antichrists. For these men assume the cloak of piety, and pretend to preach the Gospel, with the one object of inducing others to deny Christ. It was the misery and folly of the day that men endeavoured to promote the cause of God by human means and the favour of the world. Hilary asks bishops, who believe in their office, whether the Apostles had secular support when by their preaching they converted the greater part of mankind. . . .
- “The Church seeks for secular support, and in so doing insults Christ by the implication that His support is insufficient. She in her turn holds out the threat of exile and prison. It was her endurance of these that drew men to her; now she imposes her faith by violence. She craves for favours at the hand of her communicants; once it was her consecration that she braved the threatenings of persecutors. Bishops in exile spread the Faith; now it is she that exiles bishops. She boasts that the world loves her; the world’s hatred was the evidence that she was Christ’s. . . . The time of Antichrist, disguised as an angel of light, has come. The true Christ is hidden from almost every mind and heart. Antichrist is now obscuring the truth that he may assert falsehood hereafter.”
Hilary also attended several synods during his time in exile, including the council at Seleucia (359) which saw the triumph of thehomoionparty and the forbidding of all discussion of the divine substance. In 360, Hilary tried unsuccessfully to secure a personal audience with Constantius, as well as to address the council which met at Constantinople in 360. When this council ratified the decisions of Ariminumand Seleucia, Hilary responded with the bitter In Constantium, which attacked the Emperor Constantius as Antichrist and persecutor of orthodox Christians. Hilary’s urgent and repeated requests for public debates with his opponents, especially with Ursacius and Valens, proved at last so inconvenient that he was sent back to his diocese, which he appears to have reached about 361, within a very short time of the accession of Emperor Julian.
On returning to his diocese in 361, Hilary spent most of the first two or three years trying to persuade the local clergy that the homoionconfession was merely a cover for traditional Arian subordinationism. Thus, a number of synods in Gaul condemneded the creed promulgated at Council of Ariminium (359).
In 364, Hilary extended his efforts once more beyond Gaul. He impeached Auxentius, bishop of Milan, a man high in the imperial favour, as heterodox. EmperorValentinian I accordingly summoned Hilary to Milan to there maintain his charges. However, the supposed heretic gave satisfactory answers to all the questions proposed. Hilary denounced Auxentius as a hypocrite as he himself was ignominiously expelled from Milan. Upon returning home, Hilary in 365, published the Contra Arianos vel Auxentium Mediolanensem liber,describing his unsuccessful efforts against Auxentius. He also (but perhaps at a somewhat earlier date) published theContra Constantium Augustum liber, accusing the lately deceased emperor as having been the Antichrist, a rebel against God, “a tyrant whose sole object had been to make a gift to the devil of that world for which Christhad suffered.”
Recent research has distinguished between Hilary’s thought before his period of exile in Phrygia under Constantius and the quality of his later major works. While Hilary closely followed the two great Alexandrians, Origen and Athanasius, in exegesis and Christology respectively, his work shows many traces of vigorous independent thought.
Among Hilary’s earliest writings, completed some time before his exile in 356, is his Commentarius in Evangelium Matthaei, an allegorical exegesis of the firstGospel. This is the first Latin commentary on Matthew to have survived in its entirety. Hilary’s commentary was strongly influenced by Tertullian and Cyprian, and made use of several classical writers, including Cicero, Quintilian, Pliny and the Roman historians.
Hilary’s expositions of the Psalms, Tractatus super Psalmos, largely follow Origen, and were composed some time after Hilary returned from exile in 360. Since Jerome found the work incomplete, no one knows whether Hilary originally commented on the whole Psalter. Now extant are the commentaries on Psalms 1, 2, 9, 13, 14, 51-69, 91, and 118-150.
The third surviving exegetical writing by Hilary is the Tractatus mysteriorum, preserved in a single manuscript first published in 1887.
Hilary’s major theological work was the twelve books now known as De Trinitate. This was composed largely during his exile, though perhaps not completed until his return to Gaul in 360.
Historical works and hymns
Various writings comprise Hilary’s ‘historical’ works. These include the Liber II ad Constantium imperatorem, the Liber in Constantium inperatorem, Contra Arianos vel Auxentium Mediolanensem liber, and the various documents relating to the Arian controversy in Fragmenta historica.
Some consider Hilary as the first Latin Christian hymn writer, because Jerome said Hilary produced a liber hymnorum. Three hymns are attributed to him, though none are indisputable.
Reputation and veneration
Hilary is the pre-eminent Latin writer of the 4th century (before Ambrose). Augustine of Hippo called him “the illustrious doctor of the churches”, and his works continued to be highly influential in later centuries. Venantius Fortunatus wrote a vita of Hilary by 550, but few now consider it reliable. More trustworthy are the notices in Saint Jerome (De vir. illus. 100), Sulpicius Severus (Chron. ii. 39-45) and in Hilary’s own writings. Pope Pius IX formally recognized him as Universae Ecclesiae Doctor in 1851.
In the Roman calendar of saints, Hilary’s feast day is on 13 January, 14 January in the pre-1970 form of the calendar. The spring terms in the English Law Courts and at Oxford and Durham Universities are called the Hilary term since they begin on approximately this date. Some consider Saint Hilary of Poitiers as the patron saint of lawyers.
From his writing St. Hilary’s symbol came to be three books and a quill pen.
Sulpicius Severus‘ Vita Sancti Martini led to a cult of Saint Hilary as well as of St. Martin of Tours which spread early to western Britain. The villages of St Hilary inCornwall and Glamorgan and that of Llanilar in Ceredigion bear his name.
- General Audience Libreria Editrice Vaticana
- “Calendarium Romanum” (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 85
- Hunter, p.302.
- Bettenson, Henry. The Later Christian Fathers OUP (1970), p.4
- Watson E.W. “Introduction to the Life and writings of St Hilary of Poitiers” in Library of Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers – Series II N° IX Eerdmans reprint 1983, p. ii
- Hunter names the date as 350. David G Hunter, ‘Fourth-century Latin writers’, in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Young, eds, The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature, (2010), p302
- “Early Christian Greek and Latin Literature, A Literary History” O’Connell, Mathew, Peabody Mass, 2002, p.252-253
- Clavis Patrum Latinorun, E. Dekkers, Claudio Moreschin, Enrico Norello, Vienna, 1995
- David G Hunter, “Fourth-century Latin writers”, in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Young, eds, The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature, (2010), p302
- Clugnet, Léon. “St. Hilary of Poitiers.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 14 Aug. 2014
- Hilary, De Trinitate, book 6, chap. 46, in NPNF, 2d series, vol. 9, p. 115
- Froom 1950, pp. 408-409.
- E. W. Watson, Introduction to Hilary of Poitiers, in NPNF, 2d series, vol. 9, pp. lii, liii.
- Sulpicius Severus, Chronicum 2.45
- Hunter, p.303.
- Jerome, Vir Ill 100; David G Hunter, ‘Fourth-century Latin writers’, in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Young, eds, The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature, (2010), p303
- Vir Ill 100
- Hunter, p.304.
- Cross, F.L.; Livingstone, E.A., eds. (1974). “Hilary of Poitiers, St.”. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. OUP.
- Farmer, David Hugh (1997). The Oxford dictionary of saints (4. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-280058-2.
- “Saint Hilary of Poitiers”, St. Hilary’s Episcopal Church; Hisperia, California
- Carl Beckwith, Hilary of Poitiers on the Trinity: From De Fide to De Trinitate (New York and Oxford, 2009).
- J. Doignon, Hilaire de Poitiers avant l’exil. Recherches sur la naissance, l’enseignementet l’épreuve d’une foi épiscopale en Gaule au milieu du IVé siècle, EAA, Paris 1971.
- Froom, LeRoy (1950). The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers (DjVu and PDF) 1.
- Hunter, David G. “Fourth-century Latin writers”, in Frances Young, Lewis Ayres and Andrew Young, eds,